Pumpkin brain in the tesselated grid

 

If the adult brain is the result of origami like folding to create the final destination of

Pumkin brain

pumpkin brain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

billions of neuronal networks, the aspect of the architecture of an underlying hexagonal tile design of specific neuron clusters perform as a mapping like response as we traverse going from one destination from another. Tesselated surfaces behave like tensegrity surfaces. On the architects web site of Tomohiro Tachi the following interesting discussion points out, “…you can see that the way it (the tessellated structure) maintains it’s stability is not by compression force, but by exerting tension on the short sections of paper that connect the long arms to the hexagons. I just noticed this the other day and was amazed by it, once I realized that it was basically a tensegrity piece.” -Eric Gjerde

Tesselated tensegrity Ron Reush folded dome

Tesselated tensegrity Ron Reush folded dome

 

When we navigate on Earth space our brain computes with its own algorithms where we are in the inner hexagonal grid sensing at the medial entorhinal cortex (The entorhinal cortex (EC) is located in the medial temporal lobe and functions as a hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation)  As can be seen on the tesselated folded dome above, the image may be a mathematical representation of the origami like brain structure that is the architectural home within the brain of surface behaviour location as a series of X-Y coordinates like an app with a dot locator moving over a map. Inner algorithms shift with each step we take, our own inertial guidance system. But missing there is also a Z direction which is the direction of gravity of Earth. Our inner location in a geographical sense computes where we are in a rich environment on a curved surface. But the essence of the inner design appears to be shape based, within a specific matrix of X-Y-Z as 3-dimensional space. So biotensegrity shape sensing determines what shape motion in the world as we perform navigation in a rich 3 dimensional environment.

In previous essays I have stressed the abundance of citations to the existence of biotensegrity a la Snelson, which is the inner cellular balance involving the integrity of compression/tension of the entire shape design within the brain to perform as shape sensing as the essence of evolutionary progress within the biology of life on our planet. Our inner shape sensing is able to grasp outer surrounding shape as the planet that we walk on especially not getting lost unless we are having a stroke or perhaps shifting the beginning of Alzheimer’s disease has taken the reference direction from the inner compass from our ability to navigate in familiar surroundings. Now Nature has to be able to calibrate this rich trajectory of where we are facing forward standing upright. The gravity orienting reflex is called a yawn. (Please read more http://www.cerbrovortex.com essays wherein I have elaborated how our brain links into a coordinate matrix space of X-Y-Z directions especially how autistic boys don’t yawn in their Mother’s womb and when they are later eye trained to master coordinated eye tracking their yawn frequency ramps up)

Here’s where I am going with this shape observation. Inside a sheet or a mat of neurons can activate in a grid map-like pattern the connections of moving on a novel surface oriented from a start to a stop. In our MRI imaging machines we impose a rectangular slicing a forcing of map borders into the origami of the brain architecture..

AUXETIC DOME Inside this grid has to be within a matrix of space despite the alignment of a 2 D spacing. formated to fit a computer screen.

This years Nobel Prize 2014 awarded to Edvard Moser and his wife May-Britt Moser with John O’Keefe on the discovery of place based neurons  and grid similar neurons capability to navigate outlines in vague form inner brain grids that correspond to navigation capacity of where we are as humans, rats or bats. But don’t inner maps have edges and it is this aspect of an edge as a motion of geometry that makes the surface exploration interesting. The image below is the cellular architecture of the brain grid that matches head position when navigation cueing is performed in black positionally related to each neuron firing cluster for that exact surface position in red whether in dark or in light conditions. grid cell

We are burdened when viewing the brain to see a curved surface conforming to the head dome. We don’t yet see how Nature folds into itself the entire origami of connections that result from shape based embryology. Now when a surface excitation in the form of a grid network is revealed do we see the collapsed aspect of a deformed dome pushed down onto a surface within hexagon structures ? Do we see any tension or pulling strain inside  this representation ? Of course not.We are looking for firing anatomy patterns inside a grid which is 2 dimensional. We see a design as if a tennis racket grid spacing without the balanced tension/compression within  the entire racket.

Tennis racket grid in floating tension compression motion

Tennis racket grid in floating tension compression motion

But each grid also has an edge surrounding it. So the question becomes, ‘ How does Nature build a grid shape? ‘ angels_bats_circle_limit_4 (1) There is no such thing in the brain as just a flat surface in direction X-Y. Remember my earlier essays describing traction within the brain, what Penfield and Fenstermacher first described in 1930 as ‘brain pull’ in the journal Brain? Where is the brain pull in the image of the neuronal grid? Essentially where is the tension/compression directions because the neuronal mat is described as tesselated. In the abutting edge art notice the M C  Escher like tiling of bats into angels that the shapes are merging into each other as if a Moroccan fantasy of heaven versus hell were inserted floating inside a circle blurring progressing toward the edge of the circle. Brain tissue behaves like the strings of a tennis racket within a much smaller scale. The tension compression is not linear along single directions but along multitudes of directions. The entire gorgeous structure senses in all directions all the time. The spring of the smaller strings within the brain surrounding the hexagonal cluster grids determine performance of the network neuronal grids. That’s why the brain pull at a certain point triggered a seizure as Penfield grabbed the edge of the dura in 1930 in one of their brain pull patients under seizure surgery.. The system crashes in shape as the tipping point is surpassed. Seizures are shape storms. The brain has a range of softness into firmness to release genes when the surrounding tissue zone changes shape tension/compression, that’s the essence of Penfield’s and Fenstermacher’s 1930 observation of their description of scarring tract ‘brain pull’. Change the local shape by Penfield literally tugging on it, the dura in this case,  releases a seizure in a form of shape storm. But a shape storm of tightness at the critical point of conversion from soft to stiff. Back in 1930 Donald Ingber’s concepts of tensegrity had not been exposed yet. But brain pull matches to what Nature does at the start of a seizure as a shape event in time releases in a distortion field.

Now look at the following geometric transformation by Dave Stasiuk , ” I examined the possibility of developing an architectural system through an iterative process that examined geometric field conditions, formal variations, and material explorations.  My particular interest was in creating a module-based tensegrity system that would allow for mass-produced elements to recombine in a variety of programmed conditions.  The final project describes two distinct elements that operate in compression: a regular hexagon module and a pole.  Each of these is fixed in size and construction. Variety is introduced into the system entirely through variation in the lengths of the tensile members that hold the compression elements together.”

Ultimately these elements can be combined to approximate double curvature, while retaining their structural performance.  The dimensions of the tensile members are calculated using parametric software that arrays the compressive elements on a guide surface and determines the distances between the connection points.”

” The driving geometry behind the system is a system of offset layered hexagons.  The tensile connection system is topologically based on the process of “weaving” these hexagons together, as illustrated in the following sets of diagrams.”

100401_Geo1-01

Notice in the geometric transformation of the occurence of hexagons and tiling phenomena or tesselation.

100401_Tensegrity_Applied-02

Also notice the shapes of the curved surface especially the hexagons as tesselated clusters.

100401_Tensegrity_GH-02-260x156It’s starting to match to the shape of the grid pattern. I’ll ask the reader to suspend the objection to the change of scale or size but recall that biotensegrity can be transformed as a scalable functional relationship. But especially notice the description of, ‘ The tensile connection system is topologically based on the process of “weaving” these hexagons together.’

The clustering of neurons belies the architecture within the anatomy. Architects describe building systems with terms like, geometry, struts, actuators and surfaces. Biologists describing scaled down versions of biotensegrity use the terms microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments performing the same integrity of balance of compression with floating tension. All these technical terms are scaled versions of the same process for tensegrity.  In architecture structures from space stations to Martian rolling NASA robots use tensegrity as a design imperative. Nature employs biotensegrity to establish shape sensing with shape of immediate surroundings determining cellular gene outcome. The grid cluster is the snap shot of a hexagon weave within the architecture of the brain’s entorhinal cortex that neurones sense positional motion as an inner mapping capacity with mapping onto a cluster neuronal grid network coordinate system. The neuronal shape of these clusters within the grid are aligned origami style to activate as the body explores a novel surface. Shape performs the information flow.

 tensegrity geometry Sushant Verma Pradeep Devadass adaptive skins


tensegrity geometry Sushant Verma Pradeep Devadass adaptive skins

Nature is her own architect. She employes biotensegrity algorithms employing shape deformation to manipulate information storing retrieval with intelligence to adjust dynamically.

 

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Dust to dust

Dust-to-Dust-2

Disassemble a brain into its pieces becomes the biblical description of life as ‘dust to dust’ the lament of the common burial cant. We know now of the bombardment of Earth that cosmic dust mixes into our local dust. So the compact expression carries weight from massive galactic distances into tiny neighbourhoods the separations are closer than we imagine. We float in this grainy substance held together in clumps of attractions our shapes glued then with time becoming unbound to gather into the wind.

Where does the shape come from to make this kinetic mix learn to be self observant? To seek out the moment of discovery. The shape is in the wind in the spiral of the water flowing in time each flow can make definition out of mobile dust, the Earth and cosmos are in all of us. To behave in tribal fashion that one form is superior toward another is a child’s misunderstanding of the essence of unity.

Sand-Face

The face is not a mask of emotion the face is a link of shape into the core that carries forward the face. Both maintain their shape in harmony linked into the evolution of life. Shape is both form and coherence to establish the preciousness of thought. The capacity to think and dwell on abstract observations starts in the grain of sand that becomes the smoke of the life artist revealing the swirl of forces capable to hold things together.

In moments of tragic history the dust settles to obliterate our separateness uniting our forms into common traces as we journey together.

nine eleven pict22

 

In transition our skin has different time scales of performance some are soft and pliable. Other tissue beds compliant and elastic yet others are hard but spongy. Yet the hard substance is embedded with the pliant together they stretch over and inside the visible surface. The mistake is to look at their forms as separate yet they are inseparable bound together as one mat. The layers that we give them are false layers that exist in our eyes only ascribing dimensions. We don’t seek the bounding links since they are so cleverly attached yet attached they are all in completeness capable to vibrate from one edge to a distant edge as fast as a sound wave pinging beneath a lake.

face bones dust

Reassembled we see only bones not the linking structure of structure embedded in structure. But that is how nature assembles in a dynamic balance within form elastic complaint yet solid all in motion.

tensegrity gridThe face bones are embedded into a tensegrity grid that performs the sweep of emotions that pulse into the corners of the eyes the mouth that greets a familiar thought. The grid binds the elements of the dust together into form. But the swirling winds stir the image of form we see the contour not the binding elastic balance of tension compression beneath holding the surface together.

 

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERANature spins around us enveloping our world of reference to what is up what is down. Snow trees reversed become objects of shape unfamiliar. Up becomes down. We are unsure of the scale of the image. Are those globes clusters of spheres from lung lobules or are they from cells smaller than we are accustomed in magnification?

tensegrity trees upside downNature uses dust to perform in form with the ease of gravity rubbing the elements together. Biotensegrity is the mesh of elastic form beneath the bones we look staring at faces before us. As the face ages the biotensegrity envelope matches the shifting bone forms below the visible surface. Identical twins born minutes apart yet later in their lives the older looking twin always dies sooner depending on life stresses, always they don’t die minutes apart. Their faces are their biotensegrity matrix of health and predictive toward the death march.

But the design is not like a coating only surface attracting, the design permeates the entire volume rising from inner gene codes. The astonishing aspect of shape is the envelope of force determines the outcome of protein production. Soft surroundings versus stiff surroundings are the difference between normal healing repair or the abundant shape of cancer proliferation. Anchors within the matrix of the scaffolding surrounding cells are not just support they are sensors for switches to determine gene outcome.

Dust hands

The compression/tension of the locale  3 dimensional zone is the determinant.  This pervasive tensional integrity force as a system is the trigger not the genes themselves. We have to change how we ascribe force as a language of engagement to pulling pushing motion of degrees of pliability. The density of surrounding tissue determines the cellular outcome. Softness or hardness with every gradation in between is the source of life flow in time. Separate a cell from its foundational support is the equivalent to unplug the information flow, the cell dies. We talk about the thread of life perhaps its more appropriate to describe the weave as the image of the information within shape. The weave is the surrounding form informing the necessity of forces in motion surrounding and signing through 3 dimensional spaces. The connections are all linked in harmonic coordination. The architecture is not only of place but as GPS nano positional too. That is the shape of life.

red_dust

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Brain concussion is temporary loss of the most basic point of reference for behavior on Earth

We move we think in a brain sensed environment that demands our interpretation. We see with our brain we sense gravity within our brain. To temporarily lose this sense of gravity as a primal direction as astronauts do is comparable to the adaptation within our plastic brain response to a gravity hit that is the injury of a brain concussion. The responses and adaptations to both events is profound as we age prematurely as the outcome.

George Clooney and Sandra Bullock from the movie : Gravity

George Clooney and Sandra Bullock from the movie : Gravity

As I have suffered my own brief stroke a few weeks back I contemplate the ability of our brain to heal itself. For that brief exposure I am in wonder at the capacity to self repair. But my knowledge is that more direct. The first paragraph is what I have learned teaching myself during the past two years trying to fathom the complexity of what is a brain concussion ?

No question the elephant in the room for the discussion of how important is gravity to our brain to all mammalian’s is this central orienting vector of our planet’s gravitational force field. Everything we do what we sense how we are built how we procreate how we shape sense has to do with the omnipresence of gravity acting on every single cell within the tensegrity networks that we all are built upon. Whether it’s Kate Upton floating in a parabolic flight of microgravity we all surrender to the direction that gravity imparts onto our inner makeup. Every single step we take from the first baby step to the final death step is linked into gravity.

Kate Upton

We constantly seek positional equilibrium by leaning instantly juggling the vagaries of our own shifting center of gravity as we stand. In contrast in outer space microgravity any posture is in equilibrium without any muscle forces which demands a profound change in the brain/body control strategy.

ASIMO bnrL_history

The human body is divided into zones of control to coordinate motion within 3 dimensional space. The head, the neck, the torso, the limbs and the contact surfaces of the feet at the interface with mother earth. The system of control is believed to function in both directions to the head and away from the head. The tonic vibration reflex in flexor muscle is enhanced hence after a concussion I would predict that this overcompensation would influence the body of the concussed person to lean less in compensation.

How would ASIMO the Honda robot perform aboard the International Space Station in terms of motion ? Since this robot doesn’t have our human plastic adaptive design algorithms to respond to microgravity the robot would essentially crash. The entire repertoire of its motion control parameters would cease to perform stalled in antigravity. In one of my previous essays I stated ,’Robots don’t yawn.’ But somewhere in their algorithms ASIMO will calibrate into the direction of gravity. Otherwise a robot can’t mimic a childlike jump into the air to land recovering to find its balance instantaneously. What is happening inside the control sequence of a robots body segments is an elaborate algorithm of control motions to center the mass as different parts of the robot swing out of the plane intersection at the center of gravity.

ASIMO lego

Take away the gravity force field all the algorithms won’t have ASIMO reacting the way an astronaut slowly adapts to microgravity. But why this emphasis on microgravity? What has gravity got to do with a brain concussion? Remember the first thing that responds inside our own inner accelerometer within a millisecond, inside the saccule and otoliths  is a detection of a change in orientation to any shift in acceleration. There’s an old saying in computer language first in first out in this instance that translates to: gravity in gravity out: GIGO . Our entire control hierarchy how we position ourselves is based on gravity so this is the system the brain reacts to first. It’s in the design. If you want to interpret brain concussion in detail you have to know how Nature treats gravity. It’s the reference frame you have to involve the space around us. But not only the space also the motion of time in that reference space. And let me emphasize tensegrity based motion.

tension is in the elastic cables between compression struts all in balance integrity as floating tension a la Snelson

Tension is in the elastic cables between Compression struts all in balance integrity as floating tension a la Snelson

In that brief moment of floating/falling/microgravity within parabolic flight what is changing within Kate Upton’s brain control? Her proprioception input/output at each of her joints: at the ankle, at the knee, at the hip, at the torso, at the elbow, at the shoulder, at her neck and within her head position. This entire setup suddenly will respond differently since now all the connecting muscles no longer have to work to find gravity. Her body shape distorts in this antigravity moment no matter how brief. But remember also the design that shapes this entire body is tensegrity based, the floating tension network how Nature builds things. How fast does this transmission within tensegrity as a floating tension network occur? There is no agreed upon metric to adequately describe this. But a very tight fit to the observations is from Thomas Mergner and Thomas Rosemeier who described to the best of their assessment in Brain Research Review 28 (1998) 118-135 Interaction of vestibular, somatosensory and visual signals for postural control and motion perception under terrestrial and microgravity conditions-a conceptual model. Thomas Mergner and Thomas Rosemeier have delved into how our body segments behave together as a unit under the control of the vestibular systems that harmonize how our body places itself in gravity and aboard the International Space Station in antigravity conditions which is what the astronauts have to adapt their plastic brain into. My main point in all of this is this antigravity mimics the damage from a concussion into the vestibular control apparatus which affects how we position and move our bodies among other things. It is the reference frame to learn how a brain concussion behaves.

“As I was having my geographic dislocation stroke driving my car to pick up my wife the locale of familiar landmarks around me unlinked. I was fully thinking as this happened. It was if the streets passing by me were in a foreign city. There is no question in my mind our brain creates this matrix map around us that is filled with memory cues of where we are. But we really have a 3 dimensional matrix surrounding us and within us all linked into gravity. Suddenly my cues were erased. I saw I felt acceleration within the car my reference frame but my reference frame collapsed instantaneously. That was a gift from God to experience such a dislocation first my shape sensing is intact then bango the cues are gone. I became lost in my own birth city. “

As we build better and better robots we learn how to build comparable algorithms how our own inner brain systems work with gravity in  tensegrity motions. Life is all about motion when we die we stop moving. Gravity wins we can’t create the motion anymore. That’s why it’s so fundamental to understand this aspect of our inner working. How shape sensing performs our ability to view the passing world in our motion along side as time flows in a gravity zone.

 

tensegrity tissue shortening lengtheningOur fascia extracellular tensegrity network is essentially a water based network. If we compare this transmission to the speed of sound in water since essentially vibrations like a caught insect sweeps across the web at the speed of sound in water which is 750 miles per hour. Contrast this to nerve conduction speed of 150 miles per hour. That’s the performance capacity from all of those joint/node proprioception to respond rapidly to motion within shape sensing. It’s easier to tag Kate Upton as Miss Tensegrity to make a reference to high-speed tissue integration communication. Lets make a new word combining Gravity TENsionCOMPression so it becomes G-TEN-COMP. There that makes it like a big super fast network which is exactly what it is, the g-ten.comp network how we shape sense life.

(Extra cellular matrix is composed mainly of water via http://www.doctorscheirling.com/fascia-research-page.html)

So where might the existence of this super fast network reveal itself in terms of what happens to the tension compression floating balance if trauma occurs like traumatic brain injury or TBI? The answer may lie in the make up of the compression elements trying to reestablish altered motion forces by reacting readjusting the compression elements. In other words bone growth may suddenly start to reveal itself in unusual places which is exactly what appears to happen. Bone is a compression element within biotensegrity and the process in medical lingo is heterotopic ossification or HO. 

Noma disease

Noma disease

In PLOS one, published on January 31, 2011 in the report: Troublesome Heterotopic Ossification after Central Nervous System Damage: A Survey of 570 Surgeries by authors Francois Genet, Claire Jourdan, Alexis Schnitzler, Christine Lautridou, Didier Guillemot, Thierry Judet, Serge Poiraudeau, Philippe Denormandie. The Greek term ankylos ( ἀγκύλος), bent, crooked) is a stiffness of a joint due to abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of the joint, which may be the result  injury of or disease. A gangrenous like immune compromised disease called Noma is found around the border of the Sahara from malnourished children which affects the upper and lower jaw to the point of interfering with their ability to eat and talk. In the distant past, even dinosaur fossil bones from Tyrannosaurus Rex have shown evidence of ankylosed bone, that have fused together.

Medicographia.com 2010;32:377-383 Laurence Vico -U de Lyon

Medicographia.com 2010;32:377-383 Laurence Vico -U de Lyon

But that is the wonder of Nature to build using the floating tension/compression so when forces go bad the tensegrity net the g-ten.comp reveals the original design in the bone to be biotensegrity based which is why the evidence shows up in dinosaur bones within fused bone segments. Noma also showed up earlier in the last century in Nazi concentration camps amongst the Jewish prisoners studied by the indifferent dead moral brain Nazi doctors.

The skeleton of a duck-billed dinosaur was discovered by workers excavating for a pipeline southwest of Spirit River, Alberta, on Sept. 30, 2013.

The skeleton of a duck-billed dinosaur was discovered by workers excavating for a pipeline southwest of Spirit River, Alberta, on Sept. 30, 2013.

My point is this. The human mouth is a working expression of biotensegrity. This gorgeous opening brings joy in the form of a smile or the soft-spoken word and joy for the simple pleasure of taking in food. Alter the tension in soft pliable tissue around the mouth and the ability to open or close collapses with the growth of bone in those delicate surrounding tissues near the main mouth joint which is a point of motion of biotensegrity. Noma disease teaches us that our own mouth is a biotensegrity opening mechanism. We are built from biotensegrity and our mammalian ancestors in the form of dinosaurs are also biotensegrity designed creatures. Change the tension compression from gangrene infection around the mouth tissue you start to lose the function of the biotensegrity motion of the mouth. You stop speaking you stop the ability to eat. Biotensegrity isn’t just about the mouth. The mouth is connected to everything. To the inner alimentary tract to our intestines to our body to our head to our soul. Biotensegrity teaches us the whole biotensegrity system runs at super speed at 750 miles an hour as it shape senses within the environment surrounding it.

” The etiopathogenesis of HO is poorly understood . CNS damage is believed to activate local factors such as bone morphogenic protein or systemic factors such as prostaglandin
E2, or both. These factors could induce bone-forming These factors could include bone forming mesenchymal cells in the periphery of the muscle.”

biotensegrity mimetics MIT lab  But nowhere in their article do the authors invoke the term of biotensegrity but it is most relevant in my mind that the main complaints from the patients are compression on the nerves and loss of mobility which is a form of rigidity or loss of elasticity, which are descriptive terms of tension/compression for g-ten.comp networks, no ? I found this picture in the biomimetics robotic lab of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Is it a coincidence that robotic engineers are building running robots copying Nature using biotensegrity design? The actual contact point is at the blue arrow what is called the haptic surface where the interaction with gravity forces occurs. “Leg’s musculoskeletal system with an adaptive neuromuscular control employs a synergistic arrangement of bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments to withstand the high ground reaction forces in a relatively light structure. For example consider the anatomical arrangement of the human leg. When there is a large load at the metatarso-phalangeal joints\footnote (ball of the foot) during running, the ankle especially if the  foot is considered as rigid body, would experience a high moment (roughly 309 N.m for a 70 kg human. Assuming the length between the ball of the foot and ankle is around 0.15m and the maximum ground reaction force is three times of weight. However, the ground reaction force is distributed through the bones, tendons and muscles. As a results plantar fascia, the Achilles tendon and the gastrocnemius muscle carry tension and the bones including Metatarsus bones and tibia are loaded mainly in compression. As the bones have better strength at compression than tension and tendons and muscles have high strength in tension this distribution of the loads provide a design which is strong and light. The tendon also plays an important role in providing necessary compliance and energy storage. The same principle seen in humans (plantigrades) can be seen in unglulates (Nail runners as horse, and digitigrades (e.g. cats and dogs).
In high-speed legged robots, while the legs need to withstand ground reaction forces substantially higher than the robot’s weight, minimizing the leg inertia is highly desirable for high-speed locomotion. To achieve high speeds, it is essential to obtain high stride frequencies. High stride frequencies require a very short leg protraction time while in the flight phase. In legged robots, high stride frequency can be made possible in two ways, 1) increasing the actuators capacity, and 2) decreasing the leg inertia. The current state of the art in actuators technology precludes increase in actuators capacity without considerably increasing the overall weight. Hence, decreasing the total inertia of the leg structure is more desirable.”

“Reducing the mass of the legs is the key technique to reduce the leg inertia. However while decreasing the mass, the structural integrity should be maintained, as the legs must withstand high ground impact forces. Therefore designing a high-speed legged robot imposes a serious tradeoff between agility (which requires low inertia) and strength of the leg design (which requires bulky structures). This trade-off becomes even more critical in distal part of the leg since it contains more complex articulated features. These features are necessary for providing more functions including smooth collision to the ground, elastic energy storage, and added control.” 

source: http://www.expo21xx.com/industrial-robots/17944_st3_mobile-robot-research/default.htm

For gravity to work you have to link into the texture of the fabric of the curve of gravity surrounding attracting objects which are big objects like Earth. We observe as MIT robot engineers begin to mimic the control/design of robotics in motion they struggle to comprehend existing complications like a human leg in motion as the body runs across a surface.

As we try to develop more pliable robots we make the comparison with the robot legs to motion to our own legs. But remember that elephant in the room, gravity. What actually happens to the leg muscles on lengthy space missions? Both the tension and compression dynamics hence the proprioception of the critical gravity sensing at the joints all changes. Suspend a robots legs, like immobilization for a patient staying in bed for a couple of months the leg muscles atrophy or degenerate. A robots legs bounce right back they don’t rely on biotensegrity based neurotrophic factors. The latest understanding of these scaffold cuing surounding cells exists down to the DNA size dimensional window.

Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA Tim Liedl,Björn Högberg,Jessica Tytell,Donald E. Ingber& William M. Shih Nature Nanotechnology 5, 520–524 (2010)Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA authors:Tim Liedl,Björn Högberg, Jessica Tytell, Donald E. Ingber& William M. Shih Nature Nanotechnology 5, 520–524 (2010)

Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA
Tim Liedl, Björn Högberg, Jessica Tytell, Donald E. Ingber & William M. Shih
Nature Nanotechnology 5, 520–524 (2010)Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA authors:Tim Liedl, Björn Högberg, Jessica Tytell, Donald E. Ingber & William M. Shih
Nature Nanotechnology 5, 520–524 (2010)

“a, Tensegrity prism constructed from wood and cord. b, Quasi-two-dimensional representation of the scaffold pathway through the prestressed tensegrity prism. The colour code indicates the nucleotide (nt) index along the circular path. Red represents the first nt on the 8,634-nt-long scaffold, violet the last nt. The three struts are labelled i, ii, iii. c, Three-dimensional representation of the scaffold pathway for the assembled prism. Staple strands are omitted for clarity. Light grey arrows denote the contractile forces exerted by the ssDNA springs, and dark grey arrows indicate the sum of compressive forces along the axis of the 13-helix bundle. d, Cylinder and scaffold models of an individual 13-helix bundle. Every cylinder represents one double helix. e, Electron micrographs and cylinder models of DNA tensegrity prisms. Scale bars, 20 nm.”

What is very important to pay attention from this journal Nature article description above are the words, scaffold and prism and compressive forces, and springs and especially helix bundle. All of these terms are biotensegrity terms at the scale of DNA. Everybody has heard the term double helix for the DNA. But notice this is all about shape, involving the transmission of information. DNA is the genetic code of assembly but the device itself is assembled in biotensegrity floating tension balanced to compression. Scale this architecture up from DNA to those loose muscles and tendons in the ankles of astronauts without gravity and you have changed tension/compression as changed information from different proprioception. The shape changes caused by the lack of direction of gravity change the character within those weight-bearing muscles. Even though there are all kinds of elaborate substitutions for exercise in microgravity the muscles still lose tension/compression and information without the constant vector of gravity flow as their morphology warps. NASA scientists have started to observe that simple vibrations may counteract the exposure to the antigravity effects of reduced gravity, how might this apply within a biotensegrity structure like a leg muscle ?

Different vibrations cause the structure to sway tilt direction or rotate about the attachment. Shape changes are information changes in tensegrity in motion. In the earlier portion of this essay I mentioned the formation of bone tissue within disused muscle tissue. But no one makes the reference with biotensegrity when this heterotopic bone formation is queried. Bone metabolism needs both shape sensing in a gravity field within biotensegrity shape networks during its timeline of molecular scaled cycling activity.

So what is really happening to Kate Upton during her brief exposure of 20-30 seconds of free fall microgravity antigravity-like behaviour within her biotensegrity right leg muscles the soleus and tibialis ? I will quote at length from Neuroscience Letters 79 (1998) 113-116 Motor activity and visually induced postural reactions during 2-g and zero-g phases of parabolic flight by G Clement and C Andre-Deshays.

 

Tibialis anterior

Tibialis anterior

” During the first parabolic motion toward zero-g within the parabolic profile, a clear deactivation of the soleus (muscle) and a related backward movement of the ankle joint could be observed. After 4-5 sec the tibialis came into play and brought the ankle forward. After several trials all subjects were able to maintain a fairly stable upright posture in zero-g because of an early tonic activity of the tibialis. Furthermore in this last posture subjects had the illusion of an exaggerated forward posture. (A false sense of pointing forward) When subjects were asked to relax the muscles which control the ankle joint, a deactivation of the tibialis and a simultaneous backward movement of the ankle joint were noted. As the aircraft made its flight transition from zero-g to 2-g the ankle joint returned to its normal position and the EMG  (electromyogram) of the soleus increased gradually. During the high force phase of the flight an optokinetic stimulation directed downwards induced a transient backward followed by a forward ankle displacement and an increased EMG of the soleus. During the transition into free fall the body moved backwards as in the first trial. Then the optokinetic stimulation which was provided permanently induced a sustained activation of the tibialis and a forward body tilt. When the optokinetic stimulation was directed upwards movement of the ankle did not occur in 2-g in some trials. However in zero-g the visual stimulation resulted in deactivation of the tibialis and a related backward movement of the ankle joint. The ankle joint reached an absolute position corresponding to its rest position about 110 degrees. “

soleus dorsoflexion

soleus dorsoflexion

These results clearly show that a redistribution of the role of extensor and flexor muscles of the ankle joints takes place very rapidly in microgravity. (At the speed of biotensegrity ) However a fine control of posture and orientation is possible, after several parabolic flights. Nevertheless the illusion of forward body tilt during the upright posture confirms the (authors) hypothesis that movement control is calibrated in relation to a terrestrial  force background. In our daily 1-g environment the upright posture is maintained primarily by a tonic activity of the soleus. The level of this tonic activity increases in a 2-g acceleration field and its maintenance during transition to zero-g then induces a backward motion of the body. It is only after several trials that a strategy involving an earlier activation of the tibialis takes place to hold the body upright. Since subjects were placed perpendicular to the aircraft trajectory these muscular changes cannot be these results os semicircular canal system stimulation by the angular acceleration of pull-up and pushover phases. However it has been argued that the extensor muscle of the ankle in zero-g would be a manifestation of a functional deafferentation of the otolithic sysytem. “

Optokinetic stimulation

Optokinetic stimulation

Visually induced postural reactions are increased during free fall with respect to g-force fields. In the presence of a gravitational field the conflicting visual and proprioceptive-plus-vestibular signals could account for the postural adjustments in the direction of visual movement in order to align the body with the supposed direction of gravity. During free fall, the central nervous system would resolve the sensory motor rearrangement due to the altered environment by the formation of new internal models where visual cues are privileged. Nevertheless these greater postural reactions would also be the consequence of the temporary maladaptation of the new postural muscles which receive the efferent command for the postural adjustment. This suggests that the ankle flexor strategy during free fall would need some improvements to be perfectly adequate to the maintenance of the upright posture. These improvements would probably affect the calibration of proprioceptive cues from the ankle muscles.”

“The short-term redistribution of motor commands between the extensor and flexor muscles manipulating the ankle during gravity excursions in that suppression during free fall the antigravity tonic influence by the otoliths which tend to raise the body and to rotate the eyeball upward in order to compensate for the down ward pull of gravity. “

Notice the authors remarked the constant force of either the acceleration of free fall or gravity acting within the length of elasticity of these particular ankle muscles reacting at the speed of biotensegrity to the brain and back before the reflex can respond in anticipation. What is the speed of biotensegrity? What is the speed of sound in water its 750 miles per hour. But wait a minute what is the speed of nerves for their transmission isn’t that around 150 miles per hour? So suddenly we have this holistic communication that travels 5 times faster. Also notice their choice of description to calibrate into gravity with, “our hypothesis that movement control is calibrated in relation to a terrestrial  force background.” As I have mentioned in previous essays in http://www.cerebrovortex.com Nature has to calibrate to gravity accomplishing this biotensegrity movement with a deep yawn, the reflex into gravity.

But what is really observant from these authors is the existence of this false impression of leaning forward like a matrix of our body shape exists in our mind of where we are in 3 dimensional space within a X-Y-Z of calibrated space that we place ourselves into. But here’s the magic. The entire communication biotensegrity apparatus can be engaged by vibrating the soleus muscle to create this false lean in 1g as a normal response that will no longer be present in zero g or perhaps following a brain concussion that alters how our haptic foot contact interaction at our ankle reacts to the new sense of where down is. That’s how you differentiate a brain concussion. After vibrating the soleus, when you don’t lean either gravity is different or you have a gravity injury which is temporary loss of contact to the most  important reference on Earth the gten.comp network, where is ground?

 

 

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The Brazuca plant

brazuca-webBrazuca Adidas game ball, but imagine this shape was made by Nature how might the shape be determined? In other words if evolution could produce a Brazuca as a plant how might the design logic look like ? What kind of genetic code could produce a Brazuca shape say in a plant, like some ripe fruit ready to pick ? There’s only one answer: tensegritry code.

Let’s pretend there is an embryo type sequence for assembling the shape of a soccer sphere. Lets also assume there exists a design code to define this process just like we’re building a human being from an embryo what are the basics to accomplish ?

brazuca cells originalCould the separate cells be created to unite into the surface to surround a soccer ball dimensional volume ? If we placed such an imaginary shape into an Magnetic Resonance Scanner what type of image wizard manipulations might we perform to examine the inside of the shape ?
brazuca exploded ball

Another sphere exists inside, what is the purpose of this inner sphere ? But what about the genotype to prototype could we encode such a such assembling by itself rather than the human hands that are the machines that create the Brazuca ? Could we 3D print a Brazuca ball ?

brazuca manufactured

 

Lets see what kind of design code we might need to make a soccer shape. But what of the original Buckminister Fuller ‘Buckyball’ wasn’t that shape the optimal design?

Brazuca no texture by Erick Carreira

Brazuca no texture by Erick Carreira

But lets look at the beginning. At first Brazuca stars as a sheet with the pattern algorithms to create the panels from something flat into something round.

brazuca shapes 1

But what is the real necessity for a Brazuca to function ?

brazuca air First you need air pressure to give tension inside the Brazuca. You need to sustain the tension with the balance along the seams of compression at the edges of the panels. The Brazuca is as if mimicking a tensegrity shape object once it reaches final assembly.

And you need gravity to allow the ball to arc high spinning to traverse across soaring over the field in a majestic trace of motion. Brazuca perform as a gravity ball.

But Nature already builds something similar. This model of a boron cluster cage with 80 molecules of boron, the shape is termed a fullerene boron Buckyball. Remember tensegrity can scale down in terms of dimensions. Scale down scale up.

brazuca hot dog ball

 

“Based on our experience, beads are best for making trivalent systems, which should be locally flat according to the VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) commonly used by chemists to predict 3-D structures of molecules. Molecules with unconstrained tetravalent center such as methane should be locally tetrahedral. But it is difficult to weave this kind of structures. We have only tried a few of this kind of systems.”

“Another situation we may like to do is constraining a tetravalent or even a pentavalent (hexavalent) bonds in a plane such as boron-boron bonds in the boron fullerenes as shown in the previous post. According to our experience, it is quite hard to keep or constrain all these bonds in a plane due to the tendency to reduce the repulsion among these bonds as required by the VSEPR.” posted by Bin-Yaw Jin from http://thebeadedmolecules.blogspot.ca/2010_09_01_archive.html Notice as these scientists make models that represent bond separations between boron metal to metal bond distances of 0.24nM, that’s nanometers.”

buckyball

The buckyball is the form of a geodesic dome which is a tensegrity structure. Just like an older soccer ball but scaled to the size of carbon atoms. Shape is at the core of Nature. Shape is contained in building code in order to perform from sheet surfaces to become components of form that metamorphose into a volume. But volumes at nano levels are determined by bond angles and separation distances into clusters. The optimal shape is the atomic cage a nanodome.

On a more human scale of architectural shape we have the geodesic dome.

94c15f46132a378e45268847237c7c31

A geodesic dome, like the design created by Kristoffer Teijlgaard and Benny Jepsen at the Danish music festival, Roskilde Festival in 2012, reveals a construction that optimizes the use of resources to a hight degree, by imitating Natures own methods. Mimicking the molecular structure found in one given family from carbon molecules, the matrix is essentially copied when constructing geodesic domes. The tensegrity structure allows for great strength and stability while spanning over large-sized spaces in using a minimum of building materials as well as reduced energy consumption to be used for heating because of the minimal surface and aerodynamic form of the dome. The geodesic method of building, is a method as fundamental as the rectangular method we mainly use today, hence the two methods ought to be considered of equal standing.

But what of those tensegrity cells joining together ?
tensegrity cwll

Inside as the embryo forms the human sequence morphs into  tensegrity webs expanding in all directions. The web net is also capable of communicating within the shape itself. As the shape changes the information flows that is the incredible message beneath the surface of a Brazuca design if Nature had performed the anatomy. The aerodynamic surface not only resists the wind it senses the wind to change its own spin sensing the gravity surrounding it.

The point I am making here is that cluster accommodation between boron metal centers resolves into shapes determined by the nano attractive forces that are within the bond balance shape. Shape is the imperative for creating the architecture within Nature. Shape is both design and communication and intelligence capable of sensing itself as shape sensing. Shape links the past shape from evolution to develop shape in the present as a shape sensing tensegrity based body/brain net.

Tebe-Interesno-On-the-Moon

Here are the NASA Design Requirements for a tensegrity based exploration robot:

The requirements for the proposed design of a tensegrity robot  capable of locomotion are shown below:

 

    • Design and build a tensegrity robot without any base plates  that is capable of locomotion in at least one direction across  a surface. Use of a tether for controls is acceptable.

 

    • The final robot should be a spinal model, similar Flemons’s Tetrahedral Vertebral Mast turned on its side,  with at least three vertebrae and will likely achieve motion  by slithering, similar to an inch-worm or snake. 

 

    • A means of one-way friction at the contact points will need to be employed, allowing the robot to slip in one direction while sticking in another to achieve this motion.

 

    •  The actuation of this robot must be by controlling tendon lengths, and not rod lengths. 

 

    • The controlled input should be forces rather than lengths or positions of nodes. This will require force sensing to be integrated.  

 

    • Actuators should be in line with the tendon they control. There should not be a need for the actuator to be fixed to a solid structure. 

 

    • The key areas of focus for this project should be the actuator selection, force sensing, closed loop controls, and design of the motion control. It will likely require  custom actuators to be designed and fabricated by the senior design team. 

 

    • While moving, the forces in the controlled tendons must be recorded and displayed  to the user. 

 

  • Software must be well structured, documented, and commented for further use in ongoing research. Hardware should be clean, professional and robust, and any  instruction manuals for operation must be included.

Tensegrity or tension integrity is a structural design that has members put in pure compression by members in pure tension such as tensile tendons or cables. It has no moments or shear in the entire structure making it have a high strength to weight ratio. Tensegrity was biologically inspired by the muscles and tendons that every person has in their own body. Muscles and tendons are in a continuous tension network just like the tensegrity model is based from.

Tensegrity is a very efficient structure because of its compactable abilities and lightweight tendencies. By relieving the stress in the tensile members, the structure will lose its support and collapse into a small and compact pile of column members. In addition, by adjusting the tension in any of the tensile members, the shape of the structure can be altered, yet still retain its strength as a structure. This provides great structural versatility and with the forces being evenly distributed among each individual member, it has very high strength capabilities, thus reducing the overall weight. 

These are all highly desirable qualities for exploratory robotics for NASA, enabling high mobility with a low weight cost, as well as uses in search and rescue.
In addition, a tensegrity structure would allow the study of biological uses and analogies. By studying a tensegrity structure, a better understanding of those same biological aspects can be observed and explained.

But tensegrity is not only structure the relevance is that shape is transported into code which means transmission in a genetic fashion. Code is the language of the mathematics of tensegrity shape. Configurations can move without elaborate control mechanisms for NASA robots rolling about various planetary surfaces.

Tensegrity in Nature is at the core of shape like DNA or RNA. The origami of shapes that change outcome since the shape becomes the sensing apparatus itself. I would term such soft shape characteristics within our own brain tissue web networks.  Soft tensegrity is also applicable to muscles and even bone since they both can sense the motion either with gravity or without  gravity. Hence tensegrity will be found throughout our own Galaxy dispersed into the Milky Way.

star field Milky Way 7476483308_5b403ff80f_z

As a astronaut stands on the moon and scoops his hand into the regolith material on the Lunar surface the same shape of otoconia crystals held in his gloved hand that exists as  sensing accelerometers in his own vestibular apparatus the saccule.

Shape is inside in the domain of scaled messengers acting at the moment of self awareness. Shape is stirred under the very surface we stride over on our outward journey of life. Shape unites our own design into the coherence of the worlds surrounding us. Shape is the precious link of Nature over our heads in the night sky into the very recesses of our oun mind apparatus. Shape is the connection web into Nature.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Gravity adaptive systems of living tensegrity on Earth

lego gravity astronautTo learn the essence of life you have to leave the grasp of Earth’s gravity. The gravity vector field that surrounds the fabric of time space exists at the molecular scale of interactions. The stress of life within cells is felt within the effects of gravity. Place a life form in anti-gravity and life will change. But you also glimpse the essential blueprint of design within gravity simultaneously, the blueprint of tensegrity. That is the lens to see the essence of the shape of life.

In the life-science field of space-science research, one of the important themes is a building theory of life systems produced by the earth itself and their evolution/adaptation mechanisms that have been at work for over 3.8 billion years. The life system’s strategy in pursuit of maintenance against stress can suggest hints about the existence of human beings, who have developed scientific and technological methods to cope with stress. Among the items I will introduce here are: structural adaptation systems and cytoskeletal proteins, which have been under performance analysis as key molecules in the gravitational adaptation of living things with form – especially mammals including human beings – that seem to be constructed as a system principle; and molecular chaperones (proteins that take care of proteins) essential for temporal adaptation of the cytoskeletal protein. These teach us that adaptation is acquired by bringing out skillfully the body’s stress response system. The core stress factors causing adaptation are gravitational and mechanical stimuli.” YORIOKO ATOMI / University of Tokyo, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

Rapid heat hardening can be elicited by a brief exposure of cells to sub-lethal high temperature, which in turn provides protection from subsequent and more severe temperature. In 1962, Italian geneticist Ferruccio Ritossa reported that heat and the metabolic uncoupler 2,4 dinitrophenol (dinitrophenol uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, causes release of calcium from mitochondrial stores and prevents calcium re-uptake. This leads to free intracellular calcium and causes muscle contraction and hyperthermia) induced a characteristic pattern of puffing in the chromosomes of , fruit flies, Drosophila. This discovery eventually led to the identification of the heat-shock proteins (HSP) or stress proteins whose expression these puffs represented. Increased synthesis of selected proteins in Drosophila cells following stresses such as heat shock was first reported in 1974. Shape changes are at the core of bacterial infection causing a fever response.

Beginning in the mid-1960s, investigators recognized that many HSPs function as molecular chaperones and thus play a critical role in protein folding, intracellular trafficking of proteins, and coping with proteins denatured by heat and other stresses.

Notice the many references to shape like protein folding, the distortion of chromosomes using the description of puffing.

Production of high levels of heat shock proteins can also be triggered by exposure to different kinds of environmental stress conditions, such as infection, inflammation, exercise, exposure of the cell to toxins (ethanol, arsenic, trace metals, and ultra violet light, among many other stresses) starvation, oxygen starvation, (hypoxia)in plants nitrogen deficiency or water deprivation. As a consequence, the heat shock proteins are also referred to as stress proteins and their upregulation is sometimes described more generally as part of the stress response.

The mechanism by which heat-shock (or other environmental stressors) activates the heat shock factor has been determined in bacteria. During heat stress outer membrane proteins (OMPs) do not fold and cannot insert correctly into the outer membrane. They accumulate in the periplasmic space. These OMP’s are detected by DegS, an inner membrane protease, that passes the signal through the membrane to the sigmaE transcription factor. However, some studies suggest that an increase in damaged or abnormal proteins brings HSPs into action. (thank you Scholarpedia and Wiki for background)

Nature has built its own non coding non protein forming RNA thermometers that basically unzip their shape when exposed to excessive heat found in rod-shaped, gram negative salmonella that cause diseases such as typhoid fever or food poisoning. One of the reasons we cook food for at least 10 minutes and 75 C is to kill off any residual salmonella in the middle food portions.

640px-FourU

They are named ‘FourU’ due to the four highly conserved  uridine nucleotides found directly opposite the Shine-Delgarno sequence  on hairpin II . RNA thermometers such as FourU control regulation of temperature via heat shock in many prokaryotes. FourU thermometers are relatively small RNA molecules, only 57 nucleotides in length, and have a simple two-hairpin shaped structure. The secondary structure is a descriptive feature used by biologists to describe the 3 dimensional character of a local segment of the nucleic acid or protein, RNA in this particular case. It’s like  describing a portion of a small feature of an aircraft wing as a general functional aeronautical device on the wing. Notice how these biologists employ this slang language but they don’t make it as part of the wider assembly of the language features within the backbone of a tensegrity matrix which it is. But make no mistake they are talking shape features despite the fancy FourU Hairpin ll slang they have invented. Notice I started off talking about gravity forcing tensegrity then into the mix are RNA thermometers that happen during disease stress, by the way passing a message which is information processing by shape. This is the tensegrity fabric that I mentioned earlier of time space gravity. Shape sensing on an RNA thermometer prevents the backbone to unzip to form a protein because it can’t start to unzip. But also notice the ultra tiny dimensions of all of these things being governed by the shape process.

Life as we know it is all about shape processes within the backbone of tensegrity tension/compression networks. Scientists are not consistent in their language to describe the shapes as a general event. That will take some time.

Stress plays out in our body or in our mind or both as imaginary or real or both.

Lego flame GhostRider_01Just as foundations and pillars are necessary to build a house on the ground, formed cells have a dynamic foundation, an extra-cellular matrix consisting of proteins, and a cytoskeleton, the raw materials that form them. The strength (tension) exerted by the cytoskeleton differs with the cells. When the cytoskeleton is destroyed or supplied with material that prevents its dynamics, the cell dies. Cell death also occurs when cells are peeled off their foundations, the extra-cellular matrix. Bioinformation is written in the genome, but it does not build forms. To read a genome, the field requires mechanical strength. To endure that strength, living things build a dynamically balanced structure with proteins or sugar outside and inside the cell.”

Tension/compression as floating tensegrity fills life with form with shape not only as form but as sensing within the shape. Loose the shape of the cell, the cell will die. Loose the pull of gravity eventually the cell will die. Gravity promotes life within stress. Shape responds to the stress.

The cytoskeleton is a fiber structure to generate expansive or contractile elasticity and, at the same time, to resist that elasticity. Actin filament in cultured cells produces stress fiber that has a contractile structure similar to the sarcomere structure of muscles. Donald Ingber of Harvard University named this dynamic structure the “tensegrity model” since it controls by tension as in a tent or Fukuoka Dome, and applied it to cells.

fukuoka dome

“All cells have three kinds of protein fiber, or cytoskeleton, in common: actin, tubulin and medium-diameter filament. Contrary to the names “tensegrity” or “skeleton,” these are dynamically reproduced. In particular, the hollow nano-fibers and microtubes produced by tubulin reveal so-called dynamic instability. As the name indicates, the nano-fibers and microtubes combine and co-polymerize GTP, extending the microtubes. Once GTP is decomposed to GDP, however, it becomes unstable and starts depolymerizing and contracting. This results in an increase of non-polymerizing free forms, causing the extension to occur again. The maintenance of these chemically balanced relations forms the background to the dynamic instability. Further, once combined with increased free forms, tubulin’s mRNA is destabilized and destroyed. It becomes unable to produce tubulin. This suggests that the cells’ dynamic state is adjusted by proteins working at site in co-polymerizing/de-polymerizing states, rather than by self-control at genetic level.”

Guanosine-5′-triphosphate (GTP) can act as a substrate for the synthesis of  RNA during the transcription process or DNA during DNA replication. All of this is about shape transformation within the basics of life, RNA and DNA. GTP also has the role of a source of energy or an activator of substrates in metabolic reactions, like that of ATP, but more specific. It is used as a source of energy for protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis. GTP is essential to signal transduction, in particular withG-proteins, in second-messenger mechanisms where it is converted to guanosine dipohosphate  (GDP) through the action of GTPases. With genetic translation during the elongation stage of translation, GTP is used as an energy source for the binding of a new amino-bound tRNA to the A site of the ribosome. GTP is also used as an energy source for the translocation of the ribosome towards the 3′ end of the mRNA. During microtubule polymerization, each heterodimer formed by an alpha and a beta tubulin molecule carries two GTP molecules, and the GTP is hydrolyzed to GDP when the tubulin dimers are added to the plus end of the growing microtubule. Such GTP hydrolysis is not mandatory for microtubule formation, but it appears that only GDP-bound tubulin molecules are able to depolymerize. Thus, a GTP-bound tubulin serves as a cap at the tip of microtubule to protect from depolymerization; and, once the GTP is hydrolyzed, the microtubule begins to depolymerize and shrink rapidly. When things shrink information transfer also fails. Disconnect the information by shrinking the shape connections. Loose the tension lose the intelligence. Lose the capacity to perform to adapt.

Information in the form of transient signals happens when proteins shape change, altering local tension which adjusts throughout the entire assembly. Everything is within reach within tension/compression tensegrity since simultaneous local events are monitoring global events. The whole structure is on shape.

lego man women astronaut

” While maintaining structure to generate functions, life systems function by circulating two aspects with different directionality in various times. The come-and-go between both poles becomes the dynamic-maintenance factor, or stress factor, to the cells and facilitates adaptation. This dynamic is the synthesis and decomposition of the protein itself: dynamic formation retention by copolymerization and depolymerization of cytoskeleton protein; consumption and generation of energy; form retention and tension exertion; contraction and relaxation (extension); exercise and structure maintenance; and stabilization and destabilization. Thus, cells regularly use functions of the regeneration system by the central dogma within one-generation lifespan. And cells entrust the maintenance of normal protein function in the regeneration system itself to the molecular chaperone (stress protein), which takes care of the protein’s lifespan. If protein denatures from this circulating system, it shifts to various clinical states (e.g., Alzheimer’s and prion disease). It is proved that 30% of the cell’s neo-genesis protein is abnormal, as it decomposes soon after it is synthesized. This evidence shows that the cell system must be continually, dynamically in motion. There are many stress proteins. In heart-muscle and slow-muscle cells, which are models for long life-adaptation strategy, there is a high expression rate of low-molecular-weight protein (sHSPs), among others, operating in the key part of the function/structure linkage system of energy dependency. “

lego pepsi

HSP heat shock proteins are a group of proteins induced by heat shock, the most prominent members of this group are a class of functionally related proteins involved in the folding and unfolding of other proteins. Their expression is increased when cells are exposed to elevated temperatures or other stress. This increase in expression is transcriptionally regulated. The dramatic upregulation of the heat shock proteins is a key part of the heat shock response  and is induced primarily by heat shock factor (HSF).  HSPs are found in virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans.

Shape sensing scales seamlessly between all levels of life from bacteria to humans seen with heat shock proteins interacting within tensegrity design structures.

One sHSPs, αB-crystallin, decreases specifically in a rat hind-leg suspension model, a zero-gravity muscle-atrophy model. In a space environment, if production of the stress protein (the cell’s adaptive-acquisition molecule obtained under gravity) becomes low, the continued stimulation of the adaptation system in living things, including humankind, will become a major problem. A mouse knocked out by αB-crystallin does not die immediately, but measurement shows extremely low levels in its motor activity. When expression of thermal-shock factor (the stress protein’s transcriptional control element) is forced on C elegans, its life almost doubles. Thus, it has been reported that the stress protein, as with IGF-1, is a longevity element. In this model, the stress protein that works to constrain the aggregation of denaturation proteins is another sHSPs, like αB-crystallin. “

When HSP is forced onto an earth worms metabolism, this doubles the life span. By longevity element, think of influencing the aging effect.

“On the ground, gravity is a constitutive factor. I considered a cell’s continuous dynamic response system by using the molecular chaperone. I examined: the molecular mechanism of αB-crystallin on cytoskeleton protein that generates the tension exertion and contraction mechanism inside the cell; the gravity load of the chaperone HSP47 on the main protein collagen in the extra-cellular matrix, that is essential for fulcrum formation outside the cell; and response to release (rat model). HSP47 is a sole molecular chaperone, the expression of which is controlled by HSF inside endoplasmic reticulum. It was proved that HSP47 is essential for three-spiral polymerization of collagen protein, and for adding and processing secreted hydroxyl to the exterior of the cell.”

A peek inside the Lego man by Jason Freeny. Is tensegrity hidden inside these shape contours?

lego-man-jason-freeny-wip

 

“With regard to the amount of HSP47 expressed, observations indicate that protein and mRNA respond to over-gravity by hind-leg suspension and centrifugal force much earlier than their ground substance, mRNA of collagen. Collagen is believed to be synthesized with fibroblast. Muscle cells have a basement membrane structure, however, and it was proved that it is synthesized within muscle cells as a result of studies using cell-culture systems.”

 

Change the force of gravity by spinning causes the mRNA changes to happen sooner inside the muscle cell.  A faster sequence when gravity is boosted hmmm does that mean that stress can be changed with increasing the force field of gravity to slow down aging perhaps adjust healing? Just a thought.

“In a myoblast with frequent αB-crystallin expression, tubulin/microtube (part of the cytoskeleton) and crystalline localization are well agreed (insert fig ref.). The tubulin and actin extracted from slow muscle with a high rate of αB-crystallin expression combine to form the primary ground substance. αB-crystallin functions as an effective molecular chaperone to constrain coagulation sedimentation by the thermal denaturation of tubulin. As a result of the investigation, the functional part was found on the C-terminal side where the “α-crystallin domain” common to sHSPs is present. It combines with MAPs that stabilize the microtube’s polymer, thus contributing to the stabilization of the microtube. Time-lapse images show that a cell with increasedαB-crystallin expression is dynamic but adheres without moving. After injecting anti-αB-crystallin antibody to the cell, however, it loses stability and an erratic motion arises.”

“It is suggested that systems that cannot be realized simultaneously by non-life systems (such as form building, tension exertion, contraction/extension movement and combination with energy supply system) are dynamically constructed in cells by molecular complex synchronization. In addition, the following are suggested: the maintenance of cytoskeleton dynamics is essential for the tension-exertion system with high perpetual-motion-like adaptability; the molecular chaperone αB-crystallin is an indispensable adaptive molecule in the system; environmental stimuli are important to provoke stress-protein expression, which tends increasingly toward activity dependence.”

LEGO_cosmonaut_by_cihutka123

“When tension cannot be exerted, the cell cannot maintain its system, resulting in death. The genome has been decoded and overall analysis is underway. Just as the cytoskeleton gene is used as a control for comparison, the cytoskeleton is probably designed to remain mostly constant at gene level. We are losing the life-system point of view, which is very inevitable and constitutive, including life-science research related to space and gravity response.”

When floating tension/compression is taken away as in microgravity aging effects take over as a result. Astronaut Chris Hadfield has stated , “That for every month aboard the International Space Station is equivalent for the body to age one year. ”

lego gravity

What professor Atomi has elegantly expressed although his english skills are admirable but way better than my Japanese skills can be summarized in his observations. Gravity is a necessary stress to the adaptation to life at the level of micro signalling within cells. Tension/compression based shape sensing is at the essence of life within the gravity field of Earth. We owe our ability to reproduce to sense to see to touch to smell to think move and live to the stress of gravity. Nature has also evolved a method to calibrate into the tensegrityness of shape sensing. That means a tensegrity based reflex orients to the direction of the gravity field. This tensegrity reflex is called a yawn. To yawn is to display tensegrity across your face to harmonize into the space fabric of time into gravity within your brain/body tensegrity cellular networks. We yawn because we are shape based sensing creatures. All mammals on Earth yawn. When you don’t yawn there is a metabolic derangement like autism or aging or reduced yawning with no gravity. Tensegrity within the human body changes as gravity is absent while in space. Astronauts reduce their yawning frequency and their bone density changes with time as the tensegrity system changes in antigravity and the bodies time clock speeds up.

Lego chrishadfield01-lg

 

 

 

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Hyoid: the floating bone

TENSEGRITY CURVED WALL Img_02When we think of architecture we dwell on place on dimensions of soaring forms creating a volume of space. We don’t interpret shape within us in the same fashion. We should.

Surrounding our world is the space net of a web within gravity. If we could perceive lines as force flow we would view the flow of attraction between masses that fills the space. But we can’t see this web. We only know it is persistently filling all volumes of space.

gravity space line_dance

tensegrity elasticity Image7As we twist a model of tensegrity comprising struts and elastic cords between in our hands we immediately grasp the self rotation aspect within this structure. Perhaps it’s the springiness of the overall shape. Accidentally drop the tensegrity object will bounce as it hits the floor. But the elastic twisting is a design feature that in effect centers the floating tension object. Twist it around and it literally springs back into its original shape. This is how Nature builds things. Our bodies are examples of floating tension/compression balanced muscles and bones, articulated to perform in motion. But we live in a gravity field. We move with smoothness and elegance. Jerky at first as a child swings its arms over its head to maintain balance these are the first steps each child will master. We are all children playing in a gravity field.

Tensegrity BEST Mars_Test

NASA is testing tensegrity designs at their Intelligence Systems Division located at the AMES Research Center to roam the surface of Mars as tension changes within the cables permit the robot to roll around on its axis, just like a child’s toy. NASA describes the device as, …..” the integration of biomimetics to tensegrity structures.” The device is a project of the Berkley Emergent Space Tensegrities (BEST) Robotics program affiliated with the Department of Mechanical Engineering UC Berkley with doctoral students Andrew Sabelhaus and Kyunam Kim including five masters students, Justino Calangi, Yangxin Chen, Eric Cheng-yu Hong, Yuejia Liu, and Dizhou Lu. Tensegrity robots are composed of purely tensile elements balanced to compressive components as cables and rods which these students have designed as actuators linked with control components including particular strategies for control.

Our own bodies employ just such floating tension/compression  a la Snelson tesegrity sophistication each time we swallow a bite of food or yawn. During any swallowing activity, the hyoid bone, tongue, and voice box, the larynx, together move upward rapidly. During a yawn there is a lowering of the thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone that is absent during simulated yawning. Simultaneously both of the eustachian tubes open up, lowering hearing acuity briefly. The larynx returns to its normal position. All facial muscles come into motion during a yawn sequence.

120px-Hyoid_bone_-_animationThe small red structure in this animation is the hyoid bone in isolation the only bone of the body that ‘floats’. But what is a floating bone doing in our neck? The hyoid is at the gateway to control food getting into our esophagus. If the structure does not open/close properly food can get into the windpipe so we choke. Also as we yawn the hyoid bone reacts as a motion but not when we take a deep breath. Hmm that sounds interesting. Let’s look at the anatomy.

Hyoid from Dr Dooley

Hyoid bone position from Dr Dooley

How is the hyoid bone attached to be able to ‘float’ ? Within a specific muscle centering arrangement.

hyoid anatomy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This anatomical design position revealing the ‘floating’ hyoid bone is beginning to take the appearance of tensegrity components in terms of muscular attachment of cables and rods or muscles and bone.

To get an idea of such an arrangement lets look at a tensegrity hammock design.

tensegrity-6 hammock

Now if you were to consider the hammock as a rigid object you might begin to see how this rigid hammock might float within its support network of cables and rods or bone and muscles.

120px-Hyoid_bone_-_close-up_-_animation

 

The hyoid bone has the appearance of being a miniature version of a jaw without teeth. But the metabolism of bone is special the shape is changing in time. The shape we can track as changes in measurement. The dimensions of shape afford bone to allow us to see Nature in her design matrix. Time slows down with analyzing bone. The changes are at a pace more serene to the tune of abrupt receptor changes within smaller molecules at receptors. No longer the time frame of milliseconds for those other abrupt changes  now we view through the looking-glass of time itself. The passage of time dependant upon gravity at the crux of Natures power.

Hyoid_Bone

 

 

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But the key terminology is ‘floating’ as a suspended object in motion.

If you were able to interact with a tensegrity object you would feel the balance of elasticity within the structure holding the cables and rods/ bone and muscle together, just the way Nature suspends the hyoid bone.

tensegrity-lady

Just like the lady above feeling the balanced tension/compression of a 6 sided tensegrity object allowing the elastic motion to spread across the entire structure returning to its original configuration after a distortion.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0jRGvM-J42A

There are various wonderful animations on the motion of the hyoid bone. But swallowing also opens the eustachian tube to the middle ear to equalize inner ear pressure. The hyoid bone is intimately linked into the middle ear bones that control the vestibular system also. The relationship of building such structure from a design imperative is the timeline from the embryo how the anatomy forms into its final shape. But there is a complete structure of bones and muscles the struts and cables that describe the tensegrity accomplishment.

Pharyngeal_arch_cartilages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The face is the anatomical feature which is truly unique to each human, though the basis of its general development is identical for all humans and similar to that seem for other species. The face has a complex origin arising from a number of head structures and sensitive to a number of teratogens during critical periods of its development. The related structures of upper lip and palate significantly contribute to the majority of face abnormalities.”

“The head and neck structures are more than just the face, and are derived from pharyngeal arches 1 – 6 with the face forming from arch 1 and 2 and the frontonasal prominence. Each arch contains similar Arch components derived from endoderm, mesoderm, neural crest and ectoderm.”

“We use the sense of balance and hearing to position ourselves in space, sense our surrounding environment, and to communicate. Importantly hearing is linked into postnatal neurological development (milestones) involved with language and learning.”

“Portions of the ear appear very early in development as specialized region (otic placode) on the embryo surface that sinks into the mesenchyme to form a vesicle (otic vesicle = otocyst) that form the inner ear.”

“The cavity within the pharyngeal arches forms the pharynx.

  • begins at the buccopharyngeal membrane (oral membrane), apposition of ectoderm with endoderm (no mesoderm between)
  • expands behind pharyngeal arches
  • narrows at glottis and bifurcation of gastrointestinal (oesophagus) and respiratory (trachea) systems
  • regions on roof, walls and floor have important contributions to endocrine in oral and neck regions
  • also contributes to tongue development”

Arch Features

Stage13 B2 excerpt.gif

Pharyngeal arches Week 5 (Stage 14 sensory)

Each arch contains: artery, cartilage, nerve, muscular component

Arches and Phanynx Form the face, tongue, lips, jaws, palate, pharynx and neck cranial nerves, sense organ components, glands

  • Humans have 5 arches – 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 (Arch 5 does not form or regresses rapidly)
  • form in rostro-caudal sequence, Arch 1 to 6 (from week 4 onwards)
  • arch 1 and 2 appear at time of closure of cranial neuropore
  • Face – mainly arch 1 and 2
  • Neck components – arch 3 and 4 (arch 4 and 6 fuse)

 

  • arch
  • groove – (cleft) externally separates each arch (only first pair persist as external auditory meatus)
  • pouch – internally separates each arch (pockets out from the pharynx)
  • membrane – ectoderm and endoderm contact regions (only first pair persist as tympanic membrane )

Pharyngeal Arch 1 (Mandibular Arch) has 2 prominences

  • smaller upper- maxillary forms maxilla, zygomatic bone and squamous part of temporal
  • larger lower- mandibular, forms mandible

Pharyngeal Arch 2 (Hyoid Arch)

  • forms most of hyoid bone

Arch 3 and 4

  • neck structures
  • Arch1-Meckel’s cartilage,horseshoe shaped
    • dorsal ends form malleus and incus
    • midpart forms ligaments (ant. malleus, sphenomandibular)
    • ventral part forms mandible template
  • Arch 2 – Reichert’s cartilage
    • dorsal ends form stapes and Temporal bone styloid process
    • ventral part ossifies to form hyoid bone components
    • lesser cornu and superior body
  • Arch 3- forms greater cornu and inferior part of hyoid
  • Arch 4&6- form laryngeal cartilages, except epiglottis (from hypobranchial eminence)

Arch Muscle

  • Arch 1 – muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, tensor tympanic, ant. belly digastric
  • Arch 2 – muscles of facial expression, stapedius, stylohyoid, post. belly digastric
  • Arch 3 – stylopharyngeus
  • Arch 4&6 – crycothyroid, pharynx constrictors, larynx muscles, oesophagus (st. muscle)

Arch Nerve

  • Arch 1 – CN V trigeminal, caudal 2/3 maxillary and mandibular, cranial 1/3 sensory nerve of heaad and neck, mastication motor
  • Arch 2 – CN VII facial
  • Arch 3 – CN IX glossopharyngeal
  • Arch 4&6 – CN X vagus, arch 4- superior laryngeal, arch 6- recurrent laryngeal

Arch Pouches

  • Arch 1 – elongates to form tubotympanic recess, tympanic cavity, mastoid antrum, eustachian tube
  • Arch 2 – forms tonsillar sinus, mostly oblierated by palatine tonsil
  • Arch 3 – forms inferior parathyroid and thymus
  • Arch 4 – forms superior parathyroid, parafollicular cells of thyroid

But I will draw your attention to the various cranial nerves as the embryo develops in time. The nerves are cranial nerve (CN)  V trigeminal, involving bones of the mandible, maxilla, malleus, incus, facial CN VII, stapes, styloid process, lesser cornu of hyoid, upper part of body of hyoid bone, glossopharyngeal CN IX, greater cornu of hyoid, lower part of body of hyoid bone, superior laryngeal and recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus CN X, thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, corniculate and cuneform cartilages. Also involved with tongue motion are the cranial nerves XI and XII, the accessory nerve and hypoglossal nerve for the shoulder and neck muscles. Cables and struts that rise and fall elastically back into position tensegrity style.

This ‘floating’ bone the hyoid suddenly connects into the vestibular apparatus as part of the tensegrity network of tension/compression from bone to muscle from cables to rods. Here’s where things get totally interesting. As we yawn all of theses cranial nerves are involved CN 5,7,9,10,11,12 plus the action of cervical nerves C1-C4 the phrenic nerve and dorsal nerves innervating the intercostal and diaphragm as accessory breathing muscles.  So what does the hyoid bone motion reveals, is that this bone flexes into a position into the vestibular apparatus unique to the yawn the entire facial, neck mouth opening involving the tongue muscles. What function might this entire elaborate elastic motion accomplish ? What field are we playing in: becomes the pertinent question to ask at this point? We are playing in the field of gravity.

GRAVITY-Sandra Bullock

GRAVITY-Sandra Bullock

 

During filming of the movie GRAVITY starring Sandra Bullock the illusion of antigravity motion in space was created by suspending her mass on cables with registration dots along her body that are used to position her as if ‘floating’ in space, digitally erased by software algorithms. The yawn harmonizes our inner system of interoception within the yawn motion into the field of gravity. A yawn is therefore the reflex to orient to Earth’s field of gravity. When in space astronauts don’t yawn, they are surrounded by antigravity termed microgravity. Their reflex to orient to the vector of gravity crashes. Their hyoid bone in time will change shape in the process of inner osteoporosis, as the bone density ages more rapidly,  the hyoid bone reveals the new shape of bone loss due to the absence of a gravity field unable to move properly to calibrate to the vector of gravity using all those cranial nerves that operate a tensegrity yawn.

A final small observation from the journal Scientific Reports 3, Article number: 1340 doi:10.1038/srep01340 on a smaller scale of life in antigravity/microgravity environment.

Impact of simulated microgravity on the normal developmental time line of an animal-bacteria symbiosis

Basic RGB

 

“The microgravity environment during space flight imposes numerous adverse effects on animal and microbial physiology. It is unclear, however, how microgravity impacts those cellular interactions between mutualistic microbes and their hosts. Here, we used the symbiosis between the host squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model system. We examined the impact of simulated microgravity on the timeline of bacteria-induced development in the host light organ, the site of the symbiosis. To simulate the microgravity environment, host squid and symbiosis-competent bacteria were incubated together in high-aspect ratio rotating wall vessel bioreactors and examined throughout the early stages of the bacteria-induced morphogenesis. The host innate immune response was suppressed under simulated microgravity; however, there was an acceleration of bacteria-induced apoptosis and regression in the host tissues. These results suggest that the space flight environment may alter the cellular interactions between animal hosts and their natural healthy microbiome.” Redirecting the gravity force field alters the functioning within the immune system.

According to physician Olivier Walusinski and Professor of Ethology Bertrand Deputtein their report Yawning: its cycles, its roles, ” At awakening, the yawning and stretching open the pharngo-larynx (via motion of the hyoid) to its maximum to activate the return of muscle tone (loss of tensegrity floating tension) at its maximal from paradoxical sleep which then increases cardiac frequency, blood pressure, muscle metabolism, all associated with a loosening up of articulations. “ Tension/compression spills back into the system rising vertically within the gravity field to stand up erect stepping away from the horizontal bed.

The reflex of the hyoid bone rising and falling within the activation of the cranial nerve web CN  5,7,9,10,11,12  of the tensegrity yawn gives us the opportunity to observe tensegrity in action, responding to the circadian rhythm of inducing alertness harmonizing to the gravity vector that is our constant direction within the gravity force field we live in.

But what is the relationship to concussion ? Following head injury depending on the severity of the head deceleration injury both swallowing and word pronunciation are affected. Those Cranial Nerves 5,7,9,10, 11 and 12 are revealed to be uniquely vulnerable to the outcome of the concussive forces. Swallowing and pronunciation are the defective tensegrity motions of the hyoid bone in its up down elastic range of motion of cables and struts muscles and bone. What also is implied by this distortion within the shape flow of the hyoid is the loss of the yawn reflex indicative of the vulnerability into the attachment within the vestibular system. The yawn sequence is now forced into a reduced frequency, defective in its search for the calibration direction to the gravity field as if in antigravity, with no direction for the gravity field. Hence concussions affect the yawn reflex as the sensing into the  gravity field is injured.

 

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The different voice pronunciations after a concussion

Adorable little girl lying in headphones

The University of Notre Dame have devised an Apple tablet based system to detect changes in the human voice following a concussion. According to Christian Poellabauer, associate professor of computer science and engineering, “This project is a great example of how mobile computing and sensing technologies can transform health care,” Poellabauer said. “More important, because almost 90 percent of concussions go unrecognized, this technology offers tremendous potential to reduce the impact of concussive and subconcussive hits to the head.” The project was done in coordination with Professor Patrick Flynn also of the department of computer science and engineering with graduate student, Nikhil Yadev. Here’s how the Notre Dame tablet based system works. An individual speaks into a tablet equipped with the Notre Dame program before and after an event likely to produce a concussion like boxing for example. The two samples are then compared for specific minor traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicators, which include distorted vowels, hyper nasality and imprecise consonants. Basically the person establishes a baseline speaking a series of random numbers comprising to establish verbal signatures but with vowels embedded inside consonants: like tEn, fIvE, fOUr. I’m emphasizing the vowel pronunciation pattern within the number. Then in the event a concussion is suspected these number specific words are repeated as a random input with each words exact sound dimension compared as a before to after signal signature. These researchers discovered that the actual sound of pronunciation changes following a concussion, becoming more nasal. In other words air spills more into the nasal passages changing the nature of the sound during the post concussion vowel emphasis. The shape of the human mouth alters following a concussion. I suspect the very shape specifically of the soft palate is the anatomical reason for the great work of these Notre Dame researchers. Lets see how we talk, how we make sounds.

MOUTH PhonemesSession08CThe cross-section above gives a good beginning of the way our mouths shape the inner dimensions to produce sounds but pay attention to the green colored area which is what is the roof of the mouth specifically the soft palate in contact with the back of the throat the nasopharynx. For sounds to become nasal air drifts into the nose cavity squeezing into the green zone since the soft palate is no longer in contact squished subway style in contact with its anatomical neighbour, the naspharynx. How can that be ? What determines the shape of the soft palate ? And why might the soft palate be changing shape following a concussion? Let’s follow some critical nerves that control the muscular shape of the soft palate.

Think of specific sounds like the vibration of a bell.

mouth medium_sound3

The sound comes from the specific shape from the bell as auditory input. For people to make sounds it’s like you are generating the sound of the bell within your own head as the sounds vibrate through your inner head bones as a resonance. When you hear a recording of your own voice you don’t at first recognize your sounds because they soundMOUTH Finn-cooing different not vibrating within your own bone bell of head shape. Inside our mouth we warp the shape of the tongue the soft palate the inner dimensions to make different sounds.

From the beginning of a baby cooing sounds of meaning fill our ears with the tempo of life. The Mother’s natural verbal chatter of rising falling rythms is how a  baby starts to make sense of the sounds as communication. Soon mimicking sounds catch the coherence into words. But it is the shape that is taking place on the inside of the mouth. A complex inner shape of tongue to palate with an elastic form that creates sound sequences that captures purpose, communication happens. But linked to this communication is the communication of the face itself. Nature takes shape to create communication with sound  or visually with the shape of the face. Both mobile expressions resolve shaping events into expressions that start the back and forth of mobile transfer of information. Dynamic shape inside our own mouth is responsible for the beginning of our language skills as the baby mimics the mothers sounds and face. Warping mouth muscles attached to each other in the fashion of a tensegrity net are capable of adjusting to create meaning from nothing. By the age of three the language skills are already established. If you want to teach a child to talk then talk with great enthusiasm to the child about all of the wonderful new things that surround them on a daily basis.

anatomy-mouth-pharynx-tong_imagelarge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“The trigeminal nerve contains both a sensory and a motor root. The cell bodies of the sensory portion lie in the gasserian (or semilunar) ganglion, with the exception of those for muscle spindle information, which lie in the mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain. The gasserian ganglion is located in Meckel’s cave near the petrous tip of the temporal bone just behind the internal carotid and the posterior portion of the cavernous sinus. Proximally, the sensory root extends to the pons, where the fibers enter the main sensory nucleus, the nucleus of the spinal tract, and the mesencephalic nucleus.”

” The maxillary division supplies sensation to the nasopharynx, maxillary sinus, roof of the mouth, soft palate, upper teeth, and an area of the face that extends from the upper lip to the side of the nose, then to the lower eyelid, and then to the zygoma. In addition, the maxillary division receives lacrimal postganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the sphenopalatine ganglion, which it delivers to the lacrimal nerve of the ophthalmic division.” from www.oculist.net/downaton502/prof/ebook/duanes/pages/v7/v7c036.html Chapter 36 Trigeminal Nerve ERIC E. KRAUS and CRAIG H. SMITH

What is imperative to point out here is the location of the entry of the trigeminal nerve into the brain stem. It is my contention that this is within this zone of vulnerability that the translation forces of torque that are due to the lopsided aspect of the Yakovlevian torque that I have described in previous essays for http://www.cerebrovortex.com. For the coherence of a vulnerability the concussive forces result into a vortex motion shape change that translates into this zone of vulnerability. For the Notre Dame researchers to have statistically determined signal deformations shape changes of the soft palate how the soft palate contracts less, is the reason the measured sound is more nasal as air spills into the sound forming chamber at the back of the mouth. Just like a robot would do if the shape of the inner mouth didn’t perform as usual.

The fictional universe of Star Wars contains many languages. The languages have a role in the story lines. Because of the various languages characters speak in Star Wars they often cannot understand each other. The character C-3PO is a translator fluent in over six million forms of communication who acts as a go-between for other characters in the stories.

The fictional universe of Star Wars contains many languages. The languages have a role in the story lines. Because of the various languages characters speak in Star Wars they often cannot understand each other. The character C-3PO is a translator fluent in over six million forms of communication who acts as a go-between for other characters in the stories.

This back of the throat has a series of muscles that determine the shape as vowels are actually pronounced. The essence of the essays that I have presented here is that Nature organizes at the level of shape formation. By shape I must stress the use of shape as a means of communication. When information is used think of the shape of DNA as the now familiar double helix. But shape is also an entity that scales itself from the nano up to the global. Our tissue our brain is at the essence shape nets integrated to perform the life motions like how we shape our inner mouth. But the very inner mouth muscles behave in a hierarchy of performance in terms of their positions within nets of tensional integrity. Our immune system is recognizable as a shape sensing friend or foe to tag interactions within such shape based  analysis to determine the response of the system. A concussion of the brain is a sequence of shape related events that are like a line of dominoes one falling with its shape change into the neighbour as a sequence. Learning this sequence is like choosing where to watch the events unfold. The fact that the Notre Dame researchers have noticed the transmission of the human voice changes is simply spectacular.

Singers practise reducing tension on the tone of their voice by trying to balance the inner resonance of the tone of the voice.

Notice how experts respect the tinny nasal sound of the singing voice advising how to balance the tension away from this aspect of the resonance from : http://www.become-a-singing-master.com/how-to-sing-without-sounding-nasal.html

“Your tone quality is determined by the way that you use your vocal resonance. Your vocal resonance is the way that your sound bounces around inside your head. There are three different acoustic cavities involved in forming your sound. And your overall tone quality depends on the way that your sound vibrates through these cavities.

The three acoustic cavities in your head are your throat, your mouth, and your nasal cavity.”

For a concussion to affect your sound output this resonance of sound of the vowels in particular is happening physiologically within the muscles that determine how the soft palate actually contracts. Contraction of the palate muscles is intimately related to the cranial nerves, CN V, the trigeminal nerve complex and CN X, the vagal nerve complex that both determine the contraction performance, the shape tension/compression a la Snelson profile especially whether air sneaks into the nasal passage giving this nasal resonance output, distorting the sound. To measure a brain concussion you have to basically catch a change that is significant. A shape change of the human mouth distorting the human voice following a concussion is significant.

Notice how the voice robot functions as a shape distorting robot mouth in  report at: http://www.ibtimes.com/japan-scientist-creates-singing-mouth-robot-apocalypse-looming-298695

“Professor Hideyuki Sawada of Kagawa University designed the robot to help the hearing impaired improve their speech.”

“The metal mouth was built with an air pump for lungs, eight vocal cords, and a silicon tongue. The robot can also listen to itself speak, analyzing how it could be more understandable.”

The plasticine nose actually is a model of the nasal cavity, used to show patients how the vocal chords interact with the wind pipe during speech.”

 

robot-mouth

 

 

So if you go back look at the anatomy diagram the magnetic resonance image imagine where the cranial nerve the trigeminal nerve actually enters the upper brain stem. This nerve itself is stretching during the concussive blow to the head as the result of the Yakovlevian torque twisting at this vortexed zone of vulnerability. When I say stretch appreciate how exceedingly small the actual measure is the change of tension of this cranial nerve complex zone that affects how the soft palate which it controls distorts by not contracting enough to allow air into the nasal passage. That is how I interpret the work of the Notre Dame researchers being able to detect vowel pronunciation changes following a brain concussion. The zone of vortexing tissue within the upper brain stem is the plausible point of change for the concussion to reveal itself within this portion of the brain anatomy as the human sound of pronunciation distorts.

 

 

 

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Fruit flies have concussions too

DROSOPHILIA Size-vs-Penny-1024x768
The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster is small. The size is not important to demonstrate the points I will introduce. Fruit flies can suffer brain concussions just like people can. Remember in Nature size is a relative scaleable function within compression/tension signalling networks. Let’s zoom in.

drosophala headThe image of a fruit fly head-on is at the Angstrom scale of electron microscopy the scale appearance shifts now tipping the tiny toward looming large transforming into a very different shape. But not really this shape is present we just can’t discriminate the tiny detail but the shape compression/tension is still there. Zoom in zoom out the shape coherence stays the same. Nature builds things this way. It’s like looking at the night sky overhead in our Vermont cabin. Some nights are simply translucent. Then I gaze into a quadrant with my binoculars revealing even greater density packed with sparkling stars. Working with fruit flies is going the other way in terms of shape size. The incredible thing is as you get smaller and smaller the richness just gets more dense on the details despite the shrinking. Everything is connected in this fashion. What a fruit fly can teach us is astonishing about ourselves as a species.

Drosophila Eye Development

All kinds of Frankenstein type of experiments can be performed distorting the very shape of the eyes in this particular comparison of gene substitution. Ethic review committees around the planet do not hesitate for one instant toward approving such robust feature distorting experiments, after all these flies are so tiny. Looking like two hulking helmeted linemen on opposite sides of the gridiron, what happens at the point of impact collision when heads are rammed into each other? Can fruit flies sustain minor brain injury? The same thing that happens to human heads that massive deceleration against head collisions causing brain tissue warping then distorting back inside an elastic rebound of recovery of shape. What mimicking brain concussions fruit flies can reveal to us about acceleration/deceleration brain injury. It all starts with gravity the first sensation at the force of acceleration that is at the core of signalling on our planet inside all manner of creatures small to large in scale. What happens inside a gravity based brain injury?

I will be citing from a remarkable brain injury report from a fruit fly model :

Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury Rebeccah J. KatzenbergeraCarin A. LoewenbDouglas R. WassarmanaAndrew J. PetersenaBarry Ganetzkyb,1, and David A. Wassarmana, published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Of The United States of America (PNAS) October 14, 2013 http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1316895110

We share many activities with fruit flies like mating. Essentially all creatures are programmed to procreate by gene passing-on learned survival skills from one generation to the next. One of the remarkable skill capacities of the fruit fly is their ability to fly to navigate within 3 dimensions. This reflex I have termed gravity-space-time (GST) orienting to gravity. A fruit fly flies oriented relative toward the position of the horizon. Somehow the fruit fly has a reflex that us humans call a yawn which is this Einsteinian type of gravity calibrating reflex. When the Drosophila are subjected to impact as in head type impact some don’t fly anymore. Hence a minor traumatic brain injury is first a vestibular injury. That is what fruit flies teach us. But Nature is very frugal- one system also overlaps into another system. Yawning and mating are very close in the organization of central control networks in human brain stems. A brain damaged fruitfly will also not mate following an injury, remember they can’t even orient themselves.

DROSOPHALA MATING 3886269648_5071ac68fa_bBut Nature has done a remarkable job on accomplishing transmission of information with the survival instinct of reproduction. Once that event is accomplished Nature has not evolved an elaborate display of repair especially for brain injury. Basically at that point things become disposable. I’m sorry if I appear brutal but that is the scale of accomplishment, brain injury is not something Nature has resolved in evolution. But let’s profit from these experiments, what are the main events following a brain concussion ?

HELMET HELMET giants_broncos_rainThe impact shakes the very exoskeleton of the Drosophila. The researchers devised a clever device to inflict the sudden deceleration/acceleration of a violent collision energy impacting into the brain substance. Despite the significant size change between Drosophila to humans the mathematical link that determines neuron network design as architecture that encompasses the tensegrity tension/compression integrity exists in a chiral left/right architecture of diverse neurons involving neurotransmitters covered by surface glial cells with a blood-brain-barrier.  “Glial cells are relevant since they incorporate the innate immune system. The fly brain has a similar inelastic hard covering cranium within the exoskeleton surrounding the brain, the cuticle. The cuticle defines the shape of the head to provide protection for the brain.  

From the front (ventral according to the neuraxis). Indicated are the superior lateral and superior medial protocerebra (s l pr, s m pr), the left and right protocerebra divided by the pars intercerebralis (pars in). Visible components of the olfactory pathways are the antennal lobes (ant lo), the mushroom body alpha lobe and beta, gamma lobe complex. Su oes g = suboesophageal ganglion. Dr. Xuejun Sun, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University,

From the front (ventral according to the neuraxis). Indicated are the superior lateral and superior medial protocerebra (s l pr, s m pr), the left and right protocerebra divided by the pars intercerebralis (pars in). Visible components of the olfactory pathways are the antennal lobes (ant lo), the mushroom body alpha lobe and beta, gamma lobe complex. Su oes g = suboesophageal ganglion. Dr. Xuejun Sun, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University,

The fly brain is organized into three regions, the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and triocerebrum, which are homologous to the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, respectively of humans. The Drosophila has a fluid hemolymph acting as a blood-like carrier system for macrophages and nutrients separating the brain from the cuticle. Other researchers have used the fruit fly to study a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, effects on memory and sleep patterns. ” ….fly and human brains have common architectural, cellular and molecular features. The fly brain is bilaterally symmetrical and is joined to the ventral ganglion that innervates the body, similar to the way that the spinal cord innervates the human body.

The researchers managed to mimic the contusion contortion behaviour of a brain rattled so-to-speak during the violent contact between brain  against the hardened exoskeleton cuticle. The Wisconsin-Madison group described the similarities as: ” Using the brain inducing damage model, we found that fundamental characteristics of human traumatic brain injury (TBI) also occur within the brains of Drosophila. We also found that primary injuries exacerbate the normal age-related decline in flies. This may explain why human TBI is associated with cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders that are typical of older individuals and why TBI outcomes are worse in older individuals.” In other words traumatic brain injury may contribute to accelerated aging within the fruit  fly brain’s structures.

How do you give a concussion to a fruit fly? It’s called a HIT (high [head]  impact trauma) device. Looking somewhat lie a Jack-in-the-box, a standard screw top plastic vial holding un-anesthetized fruit flies in the bottom under a cotton ball plug attached to the free end of a spring is pulled onto the side then released in a horizontal sweep. Essentially the conditions inside the plastic vial are a miniature version of a violent bus accident careening over a precipice abruptly accelerating then brutally colliding, fruit fly bodies flying everywhere in all manner of horrible contact against the inside surfaces.

Jack__in_the_box___Skulljester_by_WillemXSMThe attached vial to the spring hits a polyurethane pad nearby. The randomness of impact injuries to the fruit fly occupants in terms of location and strength is the same type occurring with of falls, sports collisions and automobile crashes that produce brain trauma injuries that happen with people with variable force primary injuries. Let’s get back to the bus crash for fruit flies.Let’s examine the sequence of brain trauma. What are the genes  that trigger following minor head trauma following a HIT to their brain zone ?

Minor traumatic brain injury in humans affects the brain as potential neurodegeneration occurring over time passing by affecting memory capacity and sleep cycles. That is the reason that these researchers opted to study as if miniature bus crashes of fruit flies together since fruit flies and human brains have common architectural with cellular and molecular features. But the transition also points out the features important how Nature measure’s gravity itself within such small organisms. The pointing finger is how does the sensing of gravity work for a fruit fly? What it reveals is that like Einstein with his warping of space with gravity at the scale of stars, we have Nature warping gravity at the sensing of information. Gravity sensing becomes intelligence at the scale of the fruit fly as it breaks contact into the atmosphere with a flying organism. This marvel happens in ways we still do not comprehend.

wing tensegrity fruit fly

Gravity warping as command structure of architectural design with a flying fruit fly defying gravity itself. The design of the wings of the fruit fly is the mathematical design of floating tension/compression of tensegrity in motion a la Snelson. Recall that tensegrity can support structure without gravity. Mass is suspended in the accomplishment of the design as a distributed field space capable of vibrating at 200 beats per second.

Researchers at the University of Washington used an array of high-speed video cameras operating at 7,500 frames a second to capture the wing and body motion of flies after they encountered a looming image of an approaching predator.

“Although they have been described as swimming through the air, tiny flies actually roll their bodies just like aircraft in a banked turn to maneuver away from impending threats,” said Michael Dickinson,  UW professor of biology and co-author of a paper on the findings in the April 11 issue of Science. “We discovered that fruit flies alter course in less than one one-hundredth of a second, 50 times faster than we blink our eyes, and which is faster than we ever imagined.”

Eight images of fly show banked turn

In the midst of a banked turn, the flies can roll on their sides 90 degrees or more, almost flying upside down at times, said Florian Muijres,  a UW postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the paper.

“These flies normally flap their wings 200 times a second and, in almost a single wing beat, the animal can reorient its body to generate a force away from the threatening stimulus and then continues to accelerate,” he said.

“The brain of the fly performs a very sophisticated calculation, in a very short amount of time, to determine where the danger lies and exactly how to bank for the best escape, doing something different if the threat is to the side, straight ahead or behind,” Dickinson said.

“How can such a small brain generate so many remarkable behaviors? A fly with a brain the size of a salt grain has the behavioral repertoire nearly as complex as a much larger animal such as a mouse. That’s a super interesting problem from an engineering perspective,” Dickinson said.

Here in the elegant words of John Bender and Mark Frey are the ways Nature measures and senses gravity in insects : Invertebrate solutions for sensing gravity/ Current Biology Vol 19 No 5 R186 -R190. “In the absence of wind, an animal standing at rest is acted upon only by the force of gravity. An animal might not explicitly calculate the global gravitational vector per se, but rather may actively modulate local joint angles and torques to implicitly compensate for gravity’s pull. In many instances, insects and crustaceans measure the angles of their appendages’ joints using clusters of mechanosensitive hairs, called hair plates.  drosophila_suzukii08 SEM In one such cluster, the prosternal organ of insects, a grove of hairs sprout from the forward part of the thorax. As the animal’s head moves, it brushes against these hairs. By monitoring the deformation of each hair, the animal can precisely determine the orientation of its head relative to its thorax. The prosternal organs are especially well-developed in highly visual animals such as flies and mantids — animals for which the body-centered location of visual stimuli is very important. Hair plates also serve similar roles on leg, wing, and body joints.”

In addition to measuring joint position, invertebrates also have  specializations for measuring joint load. Whereas our bones have no active sensory capacity and instead our sensors are imbedded in surrounding, soft tissues, many invertebrates are equipped with sensory arrays embedded in the exoskeleton at strategic points and with specific orientations. Called campaniform sensilla in insects, lyriform organs in arachnids and centipedes, and cuticular stress detectors in crustaceans, these are similar in mechanism to the stretch and pressure sensors in human skin. It is not known whether these receptors were inherited from a common ancestor, but they clearly have convergent functions. Each of these invertebrate stretch receptors is composed of an oval-shaped slit which can be deformed by pressure along its short axis.”

drosophola Formation of the cephalic furrow in the anterior end of a developing

Drosophila- formation of the cephalic furrow in the anterior end of a developing embryo

“This induced deformation leads to ion flux, which is transduced and relayed to the central nervous system by dedicated afferent neurons. Insects possess additional stretch receptors called scolopidial organs. A subset of these, called chordotonal organs, are attached to inflexible connective tissue spanning joints inside the exoskeleton. Scolopidial organs act as strain sensors, measuring the distance between their attachment points as well as its rate of change.

“But then how would an animal determine which stimuli merit a more interactive response? This question is relevant not just to invertebrates, but to humans
as well. Possibly, the answer lies in the fact that gravity is constant, whereas stimuli requiring a change in behavior are likely to be unpredictable or irregular and thus
more salient. Intriguingly, making the distinction between irrelevant and evocative stimuli requires two different neural responses to gravity: postural feedback always needs to account for gravitational pull, but task-level control should be adaptive and ignore such static inputs. The neurobiology of this sort of parallel control architecture has yet to be fully worked out in any animal. Invertebrates display complex
and robust behavioral equilibrium reflexes with extremely limited neural resources, a paradox which serves to experimentally highlight the underlying neural mechanisms.”

As the transition from boneless insects occurs within the continuum of evolution capacity to use architectural design to solve problems, sensing gravity is a highly coordinated neural activity. A brain concussion is essentially first sensed within  vestibular systems as a motion detected within the force of deceleration. The fruit fly as a member of the invertebrates suffers concussion like effects that evoke a secondary immune response coupled with an accelerated aging effect within the longevity of this organism.

The fruit fly has exquisite vision capacity to evade predators. Attempting to mimic that visual scene unfolding has opened the field of virtual reality goggles. In the latest understanding of how to accomplish merging virtual reality for vision goggles that immerse the participant into experiencing seamless vision with no disturbing vestibular effects that produce dizzying nausea. One company the upstart Oculus Rift described in WIRED magazine by author Peter Rubin reveals the jumps of understanding that inventor Palmer Luckey used to create the sensation of what the engineers call ‘presence’ for the brain’s interaction of the fake reality. Listen to what the device describes in its design, “The biggest challenge in creating realistic VR is getting the image to change with your head movements, precisely and without any perceptible lag. The Rift fuses readings from a gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer to evaluate head motion. Even better, it takes 1,000 readings a second, allowing it to predict motion and pre-­render images, shaving away precious milliseconds of latency.” What this device begins to accomplish is the critical importance of fusing the visual images with head movement using a gyroscope with an accelerometer to orient the projected visual field without delay of processing for our brain to interpret at the rate of 1000 verification per second. Its like the transition of watching movie frames once transforming at the critical speed to reduce any flicker so that the images fuse as one continuum. What Luckey and software engineer John Carmack have matched is how the head facing forward uses a camera to orient the dimensions of an external wall as what are termed fiducial markers to calibrate the interaction of the viewers spatial information to the viewers position upon the virtual reality scene. Let’s take a step back here. Neither of these men are brain scientists they are virtual reality problem solvers.

Inside Oculus rift virtual reality googles with individual eye lenses creating 'presence' within the viewers own brian seamless to the visual experience

Inside Oculus rift virtual reality googles with individual eye lenses creating ‘presence’ within the viewers own brian seamless to the visual experience

But the gist of their VR goggles highlights the significance of head position as facing forward to the perceived image related to the translation as either the image shifts or the head shifts with a moving body. In other words our world is like this virtual world that drives the smooth image over our perception is dependant on a matrix of space being created around us as we experience ordinary scenes of life.  Even a fruit fly at the scale of this organism can perform this kind of 3 D interaction within its neural network to evade predators. The critical aspect is the sensing of gravity within a matrix of space for the organism to live and thrive. Even for a fruit fly concussion this effect deteriorates the creatures ability to perform since its own accelerometer gyroscope shape sensing is perturbed which affects the very length of its lifespan. When a fruit fly suffers a concussion the interaction within the perceived matrix of X-Y-Z space is unfused from the flawed positioning of its mechanosensitive foot plates. 3D navigation is lost yet everything is linked to this acute vestibular perception including the post secondary effected genes that react to the vestibular injury. Vestibular signalling is at the apex of signal interpretation. Vestibular sensing is gravity based shape sensing at the core of hierarchies that Nature has established during the advance of evolution. Injure this primary system degrades the entire harmony. The predator wins.

We as vertebrates also actively sense the position and direction of gravity as a primary vestibular system that coordinates to our autonomic systems. This gravity sensing system takes a specific hit of vulnerability with traumatic head injury. We will also age prematurely with concussive head deceleration affecting a more rapid cognitive decline which the professional football players are already revealing with their life shortening chronic encephalopathy deficits.

 

 

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Dr William Feindel 1918-2014

Dr.-Feindel

I am eternally indebted to Dr William Feindel for guiding my early research when he revealed personally to me, by recalling an operative observation from the side of pioneering neurosurgeon,  Dr Wilder Penfield during an early 1930 brain surgery that became a beacon of insight as it oriented forward the sweep beam of a lighthouse pointing the way into the gloom of night, lighting my way to discovery. Dr Feindel told me, “When Penfield grabbed the dura mater with his Adson forceps that 1930 morning a seizure triggered instantaneously. What we didn’t comprehend was how the seizure triggered when the dura tissue envelope was pulled .” Recall from your Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Anatomy days the dura mater is the intimate covering surrounding the brain, the tough outer covering of the meninges.

dura_mater_1lg

Dura Mater: Latin terms meaning [tough mother]. The dura mater is the outermost of the three meninges. It is quite tough, forming a sac containing the spinal cord and brain, known as the dural sac or thecal sac. The image, from a book by Andreas Vesalius, shows a head with the dura mater in situ.

During his tenure as The Montreal Neurological Institute affectionately called The Neuro’s director from 1972 to 1984, Dr. Feindel largely introduced revolutionary brain scanning tools to Canada, acquiring the country’s first CAT, MR and PET units. In 1984, the tools were combined into the McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, a unit that established The Neuro as one of the world’s leading brain-imaging facilities. Under Dr. Feindel’s direction, The Neuro doubled in size with the construction of two new wings, the Penfield Pavilion and the Webster Pavilion. McGill inaugurated the William Feindel Chair in Neuro-Oncology in 2001 with the support of the Clive Baxter Memorial Fund.” -The McGill Reporter-March 2014

snook trolling rig 003The simplest most elegant of human contact is the grasp of index finger with the thumb. Such pinching by pulling onto the dura surface of the brain was what Feindel described to me, still puzzled in wonder fifty years later. It would still take me a couple of decades to understand the connections to his observations. Penfield and Fenstermacher reported in the medical journal Brain in 1930, what Penfield described as ‘brain pull,’ or tissue traction perhaps increased tension as a better term of description of inner pre-stress within scarring paths of trajectories of objects making their way into the brain as part of brain trauma occurring also with glioblastoma tumours pulling by distorting surrounding brain tissue until the inner strain became strong enough that a surgeon’s tug at the dura could trigger a seizure.

Here’s where things get magical. Let’s invoke a great scientist, Sir Isaac Newton thinking during a long convalescence.

Newton perplexed at the effect of gravity at a distance assumed a vacuum in between, as if gravity attracts over a distance not pursuing by occupying  thru that distance. He was not aware of field theory that gravity inhabits a field acting as a force acting with direction. I will now call what Dr Feindel described to me the Fenstermacher-Penfield-Feindel Field (FPF Field) within the brain. Since gravity is present within the brain structure the force of pinching a portion is felt both at the local distance and the long distance at the same time. This FPF Field occupies the directed force that orients the entire sensing apparatus of the brain. How so the observer might query? Think of the brain field as a traction sensitive field of tensional integrity felt only in the attachments within the structure.

http://sinqb.blogspot.ca/2010/10/p4-gravity-field-visualization.html

If you watch this video think of the scarring within a section of the brain pulling tighter. Amazingly this is the field distortion of space-time as gravity distorts the sample space. Blogger, SHANE describes this geometrical visualization, as,  ” G-field script is an attempt to visualize the units of space-time as they are distorted by a gravity type field. Given that each ‘cube’ represents a unit of space-time, greatly enlarged for this purpose, the distortions of each said unit will continue until the geometry can no longer represent a ‘cube’ type space, at which point the ‘cube’ will vanish. If at a later time I plan to add additions to the script to uphold a change in geometry from a standard eight point geometric shape to one that can support seven or fewer points as well as adding mass value which will increase the strength of field generated by the attractor point for each unit of space-time that has collapsed onto the attractor point. This video is a top view of the change in the quantity of space-time units and how they are distorted over time.

Watching this animation over and over here are some thoughts: What we do not have yet in our repertoire of brain imaging data sets is how tensegrity maps floating tension/compression actually move what is their range of motion? To trigger a seizure means the entire loaded space within the tissue atmosphere of the brain mass deforms past a set point to trigger, the tipping point of changed critical tension/compression. So portions of the elastic deformation occur toward a cascade of gene changes as receptor  zones are reconfigured.

The brain pull Penfield described is in effect the balanced tension/compression a la Snelson that I have been trying to describe in previous http://www.cerebrovortex.com essays. The tensegrity within the brain tissue can trigger electrically at the mechanical tension tipping point when scar tissue has contracted to the degree where the fingers of a surgeon like Dr Penfield probing the epileptic brain at the tension envelope surrounding the brain is integral to the tension necessary to collapse into a seizure state when massive loss of sensing occurs especially loss of consciousness.

Donald Ingber Founder of Wyss Institute at Harvard University holding tensegrity models

Donald Ingber Founder of Wyss Institute at Harvard University holding tensegrity models

According to Wyss Institute founder Donald Ingber, working at Harvard University, elegantly describes in Scholarpedia:” Tensegrity is a design principle that applies when a discontinuous set of compression elements is opposed and balanced by a continuous tensile force, thereby creating an internal prestress that stabilizes the entire structure.”

 

Kenneth Snelson perched -on-tower-from-International-Journal-of-Space-Structures

Kenneth Snelson perched -on-tower-from-International-Journal-of-Space-StructuresThe first person to grasp then build a structure based on tensegrity was one of Fuller student’s Kenneth Snelson who built a structure in 1948. “Using two X-shaped wooden struts suspended in air by a taut nylon cable, Snelson captured the defining features of tensegrity:” The idea that only one man got to the understanding first pervades the history of science. It is the classic tale of great minds getting to the same problem independently. Fuller was more skilled as a salesman to promote the idea but Snelson built structures around the world to blossom forth the idea of such novel structures.

  1. Pervasive tension and a separation of rigid elements. In Snelson’s now iconic structure, the compression-resistant struts do not touch but instead are individually lifted, each embraced and interconnected by a system of continuously tensed cables, a condition that Snelson and Fuller called “continuous tension, discontinuous compression.”
  2. Stable. Though ethereal in appearance—its wooden Xs appear almost to float—Snelson’s sculpture is remarkably stable, despite its minimal use of rigid elements. This stability is due to the fact that tensile and compressive components are, at all times, in mechanical equilibrium.
  3. Prestressed. This mechanical equilibrium results from the way the compression and tensile components interact to bring out each other’s essential nature: the cables pull in on both ends of the struts, while the struts push out and stretch the cables. The result is that each element in a tensegrity structure is already stressed—the compression elements are already compressed, the tensile elements already tensed—and they are stressed by each other, a condition known as “self-stress” or “prestress.”
  4. Resilient. While they are stabilized by prestress, tensegrity structures are also exquisitely responsive to outside perturbation. Their components immediately reorient when the structure is deformed, and they do so reversibly and without breaking.
  5. Globally Integrated. Because the components are so intimately interconnected, what is felt by one is felt by all, producing a truly holistic structure.
  6. Modular. Though complete on its own, a tensegrity structure can combine with other such structures to form a larger tensegrity system. In these systems, individual tensegrity units can be disrupted without compromising overall system integrity.
  7. Hierarchical. In fact, smaller tensegrity structures may function as compressive or tensile components in a larger tensegrity system, which in turn may perform a similar function in still larger systems
Snelson 1948 X-Module sculpture

Snelson 1948 X-Module sculpture

Loop back to those 1930 observations cited by  Dr Feindel, the brain pull that had changed within the brain. Now the 2012 descriptions by Ingber have a more pertinent ring to them. But what is also being described here in what I must insist are the first attempts at shape sensing since the core of this discussion is about self-awareness about consciousness that is somehow involved in this structure this architecture of design at the center of our brain performing. Surprisingly what Ingber omitted from the tensegrity description is the ability to build the tensegrity shape without gravity. But there is a duality of building both with gravity and without gravity. “Snelson’s X-structure unlocked a world in which structures could be flexible and firm, holistic and hierarchical. Over the past 60 years, artists, engineers, and architects have used the lessons of tensegrity to build previously impossible structures—space frames, deployable moon-base shelters, as well as sky-piercing sculptures—helping to realize Fuller’s vision of a universe filled with man-made tensegrity structures.” We have a choice to build in gravity or to build without gravity, the tensional integrity is the only way to accomplish both !

Buckminister Fuller holding geodesic tensegrity sphere

Buckminister Fuller holding geodesic tensegrity sphere

When we combine MRI with oriented tracts within the brain we see cable like structures like rope strands, something not familiar to Dr Feindel in 1930 as this kind of combination imaging technology did not exist yet. But you can appreciate the description of ‘brain pull’ as tension on the tracts within the anatomy as the result of inner brain tissue scarring.

tracts of MRI

“Snelson would later argue that tensegrity is a principle that is realized only through man-made objects. But Fuller’s vision rested on the conviction that Nature builds using tensegrity. Indeed, the human frame with its many tensile muscles, ligaments, and tendons pulling up on the rigid bones of the body, thereby stabilizing and supporting them against the force of gravity, is a prime example of tensegrity at work. In the last few decades, scientists have shown that tensegrity is a fundamental design principle of Nature, operating at the level of organs, tissues, cells, and even molecules (Ingber, 1998). Their discoveries are leading to a whole new array of man-made tensegrity structures, this time at the micro- and even the nano-scales.”

So now we have the magical link between the brain between the dura. The holistic connectedness between local shape linking into dynamic interactions throughout the entire shape within the brain. Shape is signalling as shape changes. But shape behaves always within a gravity field so that is the analogy of warping shape both occurring within their field of influence.

Another of the defining features describing tensegrity is the ability to convert its description into the language of mathematics. I will not introduce equations at this point since that will rupture the conversation. But this conversion gets the idea of both mathematical tensegrity into the public domain where all good science must be understood at its essence. Now if Nature makes such a definite emphasis on the gravity field don’t you think that field would not be calibrated for the function to be optimal for the usage of its owner? That’s where yawing comes in: we yawn to orient to the direction of gravity as the essential vestibular reflex. Astronauts in the first few nights of adaptation with micro–gravity stop the deep breath inspiration pacing within their brain from chest/intercostal and diaphragm muscles transforming into pacing of the abdominal muscles, their yawning frequency diminishes at the same time. Autistic children within the womb of their mother don’t elaborate the yawning reflex neither when they are born. The autistic child performs as if outside in a micro gravity space-flight sensing vestibular deranged field yet very much on a gravity based planet.

Original photograph of a stick-and-string tensegrity model containing a smaller tensegrity at its center that is connected to the surface by black elastic thread (not visible against black background), which Ingber used to present his cellular tensegrity theory.  This model is unanchored and therefore both the ‘cell’ and ‘nucleus’ take on round forms, much as observed in living cells. [Image: Don Ingber.]

Original photograph of a stick-and-string tensegrity model containing a smaller tensegrity at its center that is connected to the surface by black elastic thread (not visible against black background), which Ingber used to present his cellular tensegrity theory. This model is unanchored and therefore both the ‘cell’ and ‘nucleus’ take on round forms, much as observed in living cells. [Image: Don Ingber.]

Such are the tantalizing clues that guide us trying to understand our consciousness why we yawn. Why a special conversation two decades ago from Dr Feindel lights such a long light of illumination. The Penfield-Fenstermacher-Feindel Field of brain tissue triggers at the grasp of the forceps, the trigger is within the tension integrity collapse of a seizure. The shape of the brain- the shape is shape sensing.

So a final grateful thank you so much Dr Feindel for sharing the wonder of the ‘brain pull.’ Thank you for acting as a wise beacon of direction towards my inquisitiveness, letting me learn to learn to explore.

lighthouse

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Robots don’t yawn

FACE ANIMATRONICS ROBOT interview_gustav_08As we are about to enter the robot age the mechanical face peers back at us perhaps as a robonurse helping us into a hospital bed. Twilight time when the balance is gone and gravity is horizontal. We stare into this mechanical face seeking comfort and perhaps hope. If you have to build a face that responds that reaffirms the compassion what design considerations do the Disney animatronics engineers consider? What does our face do anyways, just convey emotions or how does this facial language express itself universally across all cultures? Is there such a thing as common facial language that needs no Google translation to function ? Let’s examine the facial yawn as the most common of all human expressions, the unique link between every person on our Planet including all mammalian life.

YAWN ALDRIN APOLLO 11 ap11-KSC-69PC-382

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When an Apollo 11 astronaut like Buzz Aldrin yawns what is his face showing ?

Is he bored, is he tired, is he trying to engage his brain to get more alert, is he copying a nearby technician yawning or is he doing something else, something Einsteinian, in terms of its magnitude of performance -its relativity.  Do astronauts yawn when they are on their space missions, in other words do you need gravity to yawn ?

facial muscles anatomyHuman faces have a big number of muscles controlling the face as it yawns. The number of muscles is close to 58 plus minus, including the neck because everything is attached. How are these muscles designed ?

Are the muscles designed to support antigravity effects ?

What unique design works both without gravity and with gravity ? Tensional integrity or as I have referred in previous essays as tensegrity, a la Snelson via Buckminister Fuller via Donald Ingber is how Nature has solved this reference to the pull of gravity.
TENSEGRITY IN SAND elev_view_FINALb

Weight especially mass is handled elegantly within tensegrity within a compression web of balanced forces under tension with compression equilibrium, suspended in a distributed fashion. The bonus is tensegrity contains the measure to store energy sensing changes acting to shift its shape under strain conditions. Local forces are sensed at a distance.  Nature accomplishes this intelligence using tensegrity as its design matrix. Shape is at the core of the DNA molecule and shape is at the core of analyzing the immediate environment. This is how shape sensing functions. The very first requirement of a single creature in the ocean is to establish what is up what is down and where is the horizon, life is organized around gravity.  At the end gravity wins we- no longer can move we stop -we lie down on the surface and we die. Gravity always wins.

YAWN JESSICA RABBIT

When Jessica Rabbit yawns the eyes close the mouth rises open, deep inspiration pause then expiration. That’s what we notice as the main sequence simplistically cartoon fashion. But the real thing is so much denser richer than this illusion.

But the human face also evolves in time aging changing shape changing tension. Changing shape with disease, like autism and epilepsy. Life paints its effects across its surface leaving its passing in the bones below those tensegrity surfaces

FACE MOVING IN AGE image007The small movie animation shows the dynamics of shape dimensions moving in time in a child.

FACE BONES 164

But what really is in motion are the bones that are beneath the skin and muscle. As we age our face moves in relation to the effects of gravity, hence the muscles are termed antigravity for the support they give. But the bones do drift, in their position in their dimensions. The skin is like a stretched membrane over the surface behaving in the floating tension fashion. Unlike the robots the attachments are not separated like mechanical pieces that fit onto each other, their shapes are embedded since the bone is in shape conversation to the brain, within a communication net. The face is now no longer a covering -the shape of the face is a code of information for the current state of the brain. On a terminal cancer ward experienced nurses can immediately tell when things make a turn for the worse, simply by looking at their patients faces. A European twin study confirmed this observation in the British Medical Journal, the older looking twin will always die sooner, always. The younger looking twin will outlive the older looking twin. Age is expressed as the metric of shape of the face, predictive toward the slid to oblivion.

Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing:cohort study BMJ 2009; 339 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b5262 (Published 13 December 2009) 

  1. Kaare Christensen, professor1,
  2. Mikael Thinggaard, mathematician1,
  3. Matt McGue, professor12,
  4. Helle Rexbye, research fellow1,
  5. Jacob v B Hjelmborg, associate professor1,
  6. Abraham Aviv, professor3,
  7. David Gunn, postdoctoral scientist4,
  8. Frans van der Ouderaa, vice president corporate research 4, director of business development6,
  9. James W Vaupel, professor5

Author Affiliations


  1. 1Danish Twin Registry and Danish Aging Research Center, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark

  2. 2Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

  3. 3Center of Human Development and Aging, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA

  4. 4Unilever Discover, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire

  5. 5Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany

  6. 6Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing, Leiden University Medical Centre Leiden, LUMC, 2300RC Leiden, Netherlands

But what is wrong with the Jessica Rabbit’s image yawning ? We don’t normally turn our heads when we yawn-we tend to face forward which is part of the facial muscle pattern specifically stabilizing the head by facing forward employing the suboccipital muscles at the back/base of the neck. But notice their configuration, their attachments. They are part of a tensegrity net that makes our bodies move so effortlessly in gravity.

Suboccipital_muscles06The positioning suggests a pivoting, by centering the head when these muscles are activated during a yawn motion sequence. That is the bonus feature that exists with tensegrity structures -they have a built in torquing that positions into a preferred central balance position. Let’s look down the body to the contact point onto the surface. When we look at the capacity of how the human foot has muscles linked into fascia with load dispersal coupled to mobility, what is loosely described as proprioception how does this information contribute to balance? It is at this exact contact interaction that we walk, or run or slip in our daily motion trying to balance the body above to not slip and fall. The brain needs to know where gravity points otherwise we are reduced to crawling on hands and knees child style.

The pattern of occipital muscles has a tensegrity attachment aspect to it, which is how all the muscles function around the skeleton. But the same architecture exists in the soft pliable tissue, even our brain. All these cells are positioned to perform tensegrity style. That’s how they grow in the embryo. If all this performance doesn’t make you gasp in wonder then you must be a very bored person.

tensegrity1 occiput musclesAbove all else a yawn utilizing 58 muscles is a very coordinated event that depends on a series of hierarchical communication systems. First the vestibular system has to be present for the existence of the entire balance to detect the essence of the matrix of space that exists around the body in a three-dimensional space. Just ask robot engineers how difficult the task of getting a robot to walk is, let alone stand on a ball like a child can.

Balance by Free the Robots  For a robot to balance itself it has to sense its center of mass via a gyroscope. What my point in this essay is the link between the face and the vestibular system is like a calibration of the gyroscope to the X-Y-Z of coordinate space as a simulation.

The world we see exists as a simulation in our mind. All jerkiness of vision is smoothed out into a streaming scene before us. Yet the permanence of gravity is the measure of how we interpret the world around us. As we age we lose our balance. We get stiff we sway more overcorrecting. Will we wear robots around our torso to help us move easily in this gravity space? Will robonurses help us when we can no longer rise from the bed ? What is balance? Where is the horizon? is perhaps at the very existence of intelligent life examining its position in 3 dimensional space. If a person suffers a brain concussion loosing balance is a singular first part of the injury to the brain, our inner gyyro is not stable. If you want to understand a brain concussion you must understand first what gravity means to our movement. Then how we balance in that matrix of space. But you have to link into gravity space. To do that we must tell our brain where gravity is pointing. Like a gyro we must know where up is where the opposite direction which is down. Then forward versus backward, finally left versus right. All life has evolved within a gravity field. For Nature not to calibrate itself to the gravity vector does not make sense. That’s the reason that I call this the Gravity-Space -Time reflex. When you look at the centers in the brain that are immediately affected due to gravity the fos genes reveal the effect of space flown mice brain zones. Fos is activation of dopamine receptors in this fos response. When you look at the pattern of exposure to the brain zones they overlap within the yawning circuits. In order to yawn you need both gravity and a system to orient to the gravity field. To balance our brain in gravity we yawn. But since it’s a facial display associated with boredom or sleep or intimacy or sexual desire we dismiss it as not important, as even embarrassing. As a connection for the very deep inspiration occurring with a yawn within the muscarinic receptors of the muscles from the respiratory neurons in the medulla, the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, and the XII are all involved. There is this whole choreography of elaboration like one of Montreal’s own Cirque de Soleil artistic performances, but this time its our very own face that is the mega star of the spectacle. Gravity is always the main component of any Cirque de Soleil show as much as it is for the audience too. The show of gravity is within the membrane mask of our face.

Cirque-du-Soleil-facesWe have evolved an entire language of the face that sweeps borders away, linking all families into one. The face is neither one language or the other but this astonishing motion against gravity, contortions expressing emotion from shape changes deep in the architecture of the brain design. This scaling of shape from DNA to link the mobile web of the face is one continuous net of information felt at the level of intuition. But for the whole display show to work the force of gravity must be primed. Our brain performs a yawn the face reflex harmonizing to the direction of gravity. It really is  Einsteinian in its breadth of performance in its elegance of execution. And yet we dismiss a yawn as something trivial.

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