Everyday as we go about our daily activities, inside our skin there is a variety of tissue in motion. Talk about a blur of fluids coursing through our digestive tract, nutrients getting absorbed. Our lungs are expanding then contracting each breath we take. Our heart is throbbing inside our chest, filling refilling, moving blood into the lungs, moving blood into our body. Our brain itself cushioned in it’s own little lake of cushioning fluid pulses also to the cardiac cycle. These are all the life events running each second, each minute, every hour every day of our life. It never stops.
So Nature is sitting there like a lifeguard guarding the scene out in front, too much load on the heart, like extra water in our blood? TWEET TWEET -Whistle- ‘hey you! Get out that extra water, talk to your buddy over there in the kidneys, tell him to start extracting more water in his tubules, OK! So if we have extra volume, extra water content in our blood what is going on?
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, (ANP) has been shown to be capable of reducing just such a blood vessel filled volume overload, specifically in a dynamic fluid balancing imperative, ANP induces diuresis, more peeing with more urine production at the same time inhibiting vasopressin secretion. Here’s what vasopressin does: Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a neurohypophysial hormonel hormone found in most mammals. Vasopressin is a peptide hormone that controls the reabsorption of molecules in the tubules of the kidneys by affecting the tissue’s permeability. It also increases peripheral vascular resistance, which in turn increases arterial blood pressure. It plays a key role in homeostasis, and the regulation of water, glucose, and salts in the blood. It is derived from a preprohormone precursor that is synthesized in the hypothalamus and stored in vesicles at the posterior pituitary. Most of it is stored in the posterior pituitary to be released into the bloodstream; however, some AVP is also released directly into the brain, where it plays an important role in social behavior and bonding. So not only do you pee more, you are more social in your behavior. Here Nature is up to it’s skilled multitasking, which is a female skill, not a male skill. Solve the extra volume problem and hey while you’re at it- ‘lets join that group over there too.’
Where is ANP found in the brain? This peptide receptor is found,’ in the hypothalamus along the third wall of the third ventricle, also in the lateral hypothalamus and in the brain stem.’ This information is sourced from the journal of Medical Hypotheses (2001) 56(4) 451-453 The natriuretic peptides: universal volume controllers by H.M. Abdulla , Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of South Florida, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Tampa, Florida. Experiments mimicking the accumulation of water in the brain, termed as edema, were made in the following fashion. ANP was inserted into the lateral ventricles, caused loss of sodium content within the nervous tissue (brain) in addition to prevention of water accumulation within the brain (edema) following intravenous infusion of 2.5% dextrose into the blood system. In people suffering with a ruptured internal brain blood vessel, releasing loose blood into the space surrounding the brain causes a rapid rise in the pressure inside the skull, ANP measured levels are increased both in the plasma component of blood but also in the cerebrospinal fluid. The other member of the natriuretic family, brain natriuretic peptide, (BNP) is also found to be elevated with brain bleed, or aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage.
The first brain as you may recall is the eye, so if shape sensing is part of the architectural receptors should be found in the anatomy which is exactly the case. Specifically ANP has been localized to the inner plexiform layers of the retina, the anterior uvea, and the ciliary body. Conditions that cause increased intraocular pressure results in increased levels of ANP. Shape again happening here, since the eye swells then Nature uses the shape change to do something like specifically increase the output of ANP, isn’t Nature cool ? Does ANP work the other way in the eye with shrinking eye size or dropping intraocular pressure? If ANP is added inside the eye significantly lower inner eye pressure will happen as observed in animals and in glaucomatous patients.
Lets check out the gallbladder. Bile flows there within the bile duct, so ANP must be active too? Yes! It has been shown in rabbits with biliary obstruction causes increased ANP levels. Patients suffering from obstructive jaundice are vastly relieved with decreased values of ANP to resolve the obstruction.
The size of brain cells like supporting, astroglial cells. A specific ANP reducer called atriopeptin decreased astroglial cell volume in rats by 32%. The same effect has been reported o reduce cardiac cell size. isn’t this amazing change the local shape of the brain cells or within the heart, ANP is peptide appears linked as a secondary co-transporter of sodium, potassium and chlorine, (Na-K-2Cl).
Binding sites for ANP are localized in he middle ear within the cochlea, utricle and endolympahatic sac where it could be playing a part in the control of volume and pressure of the inner ear. As sound waves enter the ear canal what we hear is a change of shape as different pressures create the sensation of our sense of hearing.
ANP is localized within the uterus binding sites have been localized inside the endometrium. During pregnancy, the amnion cells secrete BNP and receptors for ANP are expressed in the decidua, chorion, myometrium and placenta. Pregnancy is a shape change event with ANP being used during the embryo maturation process. It is a swollen mother’s belly that is so indicative that a baby is getting close to delivery.
Let’s stand back. Shape is sensing. The eye is the first brain. ANP is inside the eye structure as it expands and shrinks. The brain expands and shrinks. The heart either at the local cell level or the entire beating heart is a huge elastic shape motion expanding and shrinking. ANP acts to keep all these shape changes intact. It’s all about shape, no matter what tissue bed of our bodies you happen to look into.