http://www.montrealgazette.com April 9, 2013 SPORTS: According to Montreal Canadiens NHL Coach, Michel Therrien, the return of forward Rene Bourque to active playing status is imminent after missing 21 games caused by a concussion. Therrien stated, ” Bourque is going to have to be patient to work on getting back into game shape.”
Bourque was expected to return to play around March 23 against Buffalo but suffered a setback in his healing recovery. Bourque took a plane to Atlanta to be treated by the GyroStim roll-spin-yaw axis computer controlled chair that looks like a jet pilot flight simulator in the treatment center of Dr. Ted Carrick. Dr. Carrick, a concussion specialist has used the GyroStim 3-axis chair with previous NHL patients Sidney Crosby, Guillaume Latendresse, Claude Giroux. Here in Latendresse words are his recollections from his treatment.
Latendresse “When I went to Atlanta to see Dr. Carrick, the treatment went great for me, but the way his machine works is it makes you spin…
SL: Like a gyroscope? How was it for you when you went into the machine, because, I believe you go in 30-second sequences, right?
Latendresse : Yes, exactly. On the first day, they give you a pair of special glasses and you don’t really know what to expect. They make you do plenty of tests, like for example, they made me walk a straight line and they made me recite the months of the year, but I had to skip one of two (January, March, May and so on), so that way, I had to use my brain and when that happened, I lost all my reflexes on the left side of my body, my arm stayed straight while I was walking so he (Dr.Carrick) said ”Ah! It’s something on the left side”. So then, I put on my glasses which had cameras in them unbeknownst to me. Then he told me to follow the green line and there were results for that, then I had to follow a wavy line and I struggled to do it, I would go straight when I needed to go like this (makes a wave-like gesture with his hand), then it was a saw-like line and I just couldn’t stay on the line. With the results of those exercises, he was able to determine that the response from my left side was sluggish.
So then, what that machine does (the gyroscope-like machine, which is called a GyroStim, is one of only three in the US, according the people at GyroStim and it is a multi-axis rotating chair. You can find out more at their website, you could go in, they would spin you like this, you could go in, it would spin you the other way, I went in and they spun me this way (forward motion). I did it 3-4 times a day, 30 seconds at a time for one week. By the second day, I looked at my girlfriend, she was with me, I said to Annie (Villeneuve, a Quebec professional singer) ”I felt a trigger, I haven’t felt this way in 5 months, but I felt a trigger, my brain is back on, it’s ready, I felt it”. I went to bed at 10pm that night and I woke up at 8 the next day, went for my treatment, took a nap from 8:30 to 11, went for another treatment, took another nap from noon to 5, went for treatments again and then I went to sleep and slept through the night. The next day I felt perfect.”
The words that Latendresse used to speak to Annie, were, “J’ai sorti de la brume!” which translates to, “I’m out of the fog !”
What is the sensation of ‘being in the fog?’ How do we interpret that very accurate expression that describes being in concussion? But notice the significant descriptions of not being able to track along beside a line as if our body was on a canted bicycle with a bent frame. Being in concussion is essentially loosing your innate center of gravity. But the key word here is: gravity. Brain concussions are gravity sensing injuries. Let’s explore that sentence. First how does an animal recover itself from a brain concussion does it just get up to stagger around or is there something else going on, as a built-in sequence of repair, a repertoire of recovery? Is there a dance sequence, a kind of step by step as if the animal were learning to tango dance? I’m exaggerating here, but there is a miraculous built-in repair sequence of how the gravity vector is repositioned within the working of the body motion of the animal. The animal relearns the basics along a very strict regime of repair. First to return is the facing forward motion, what’s directly in front to what’s behind. Once this motion retraining like a baby crawling only in one direction then back along the same path. This motion is exhausted until the motion is smooth. This is one axis. The next motion is the side to side, at exact perpendicular to the first path. This is the hand over hand that a baby makes going sideways first to the left then to the right. The distances increase slowly, then the pace picks up practising. That is the next, second perpendicular axis in the same plane. The final axis of repair is the axis perpendicular to both other axes, the vertical axis. The animal rears up against some surface, repeating up then down. It practises until the moment comes when the animal can jump up and down vertically smoothly. How is this possible that a built-in sequence as if an animal version App For Recovery is performed? Here is the paper that I found this astonishing information revealed yesterday. The animal repairs its orientation to gravity in the X then Y then Z axis. The animal recovers its relationship to the omnipresent gravity vector in the sequence of first one direction along the plane then the perpendicular plane direction finally with the vertical plane perpendicular to the other 2 planes, the essential Cardinal axes of X-Y-Z. That sequence I believe is at the heart of the treatment of the GyroStim vestibular chair that Latendresse was describing. Check his recollections. First he wobbled off-balance, he couldn’t stay course on a wavy line he lost his vertical, he had lost his gravity vector in his space matrix surrounding his inner impression of where he was. That’s what the day by day treatment helps recover in sequence the return to the merging of all 3 axis of that is the gravity vector of orienting our matrix space immediately surrounding us, ” Annie j’ai sorti de la brume !”
Let’s examine the research paper that describes this incredible automatic repair sequencing from an injured brain. The article is authored in a review by Ilan Golani in the Behavioural Brain research 231 (2012) 309-316. The title of the review is: The developmental dynamics of behavioral growth processes in rodent egocentric and allocentric space. Various researchers had started to notice the mathematical nature of the motion of movements after brain trauma in research animals. The stunning conclusions were that the animals concentrated their recovery motion in the words of these scientists as, …..’ along geometrical dimensions.’ The recovery was following a distinct pattern. The first sequence occurred along a pure horizontal movement, an exploration style of back and forth returning always to a safe starting point. The next sequence involved forward movement, again practising this specific direction until practiced motions became smooth in terms of their coordination. The next movement was vertically a rearing on the hind legs against a vertical surface. Finally as a completion of the sequence they noticed a vertical movement away from walls, a backing away from a vertical surface. Each segment involved both a build up of an amplitude specific to the practised dimension in a head to tail recruitments of the entire body. the animals were performing a recalibration of the axes of geometry, the classic way that a high school teaches geometry. Such a teacher might explain with, ” If we are to start somewhere we have to have a frame of reference which will have axes at 90 degrees to each other at the intersection of the 3 axes that make up 3 dimension space, the X-Axis, the horizontal, the Y-axis which is perpendicular to the horizontal, the direction immediately in front plus directly behind then finally there is the vertical Z-axis, the up[ and down. The scientists realized to their astonishment that the animals were reorienting their bodies movements to the gravity Z-axis of the planet in their recovery.
How is it possible that the animal performs this sequence of recovery of motion, how do they do that? How do birds migrate ? How do turtles navigate through the longest distances within the ocean ? Nature has solved the capacities over evolution to perform all these types of activities smoothly and accurately. Recovering from a head injury is among the repertoires for animals to recalibrate back onto the gravity vector as the Z-axis by first recalibrating the horizontal axis then into the forward, backward movement with the vertical as the final segment of the sequence. They re-enter the axes of X-Y-Z to align with Earth’s gravity vector. In other words, in order to recover their movements they don’t just stumble around randomly they realign to the Earth vector first on the flat horizontal then the perpendicular to that, facing forward finally in sequence the vertical up-down in parallel to Earth’s gravity vector. The animals instinctively recover to reorient to gravity. The damage to their brain shifts the body matrix off the gravity orientation, the brain is lost in true direction. The brain repairs itself to the direction to gravity.
Personally I am dancing with excitement to this stunning capacity toward inherent recovery capacity. It means Nature can recognize damage to the gravity vector to kick start it’s own re-entry sequence since all the genes are aligned to the gravity vector. There is a unique and primal orientation which is the existence of the force of attraction that is gravity since the very start of all evolutionary processes. In it’s purest description the scientists describe the recovery process sequence with….” exhausting a dimension, or a degree of freedom, before moving to the next dimension.” I believe that is the sequence that the hockey players like Guillaume Latendresse have been exposed to in terms of vestibular stimulation. It’s not just about spinning somebody around in X-Y-Z directions and ‘pooof’ you’re recovered. No the recovery process is spread out over at least five days of dizzying spinning accomplishes per day to mimic the selective recalibration to the Earth’s gravity vector. In the beginning I kept saying to myself,” Could this vestibular chair thing be just a placebo could that be the reason hockey players are being rehabilitated? I was genuinely confused, what could the vestibular motions be doing what did the concussion symptoms resolve? The thoughts kept bugging me month after month. I wanted to understand. But what I first had to understand was the flow of gravity. How very important that vector of direction is to absolutely everything in terms of cellular signalling. If I have not written a lot of cerebroveortex essays recently that is the reason that I was dwelling on trying to understand how important gravity is to the entire evolution within cellular signalling. When you have to break your mind free to truly see you have to go into unfamiliar territory which is really not very pleasant since all the conventions, the safe base of familiar thoughts no longer are there as the references. For awhile you get completely utterly lost. Then and only then can you begin to re-see anew.
The other spectacular confirmation of the sequencing of axes unfolding step-by-step within the natural geometry of recovery using a sophisticated statistical methodology was demonstrated completely in a reverse sequence when the same rats were given a dopamine agonist, apomorphine. The order was reversed with vertical first then forward/backward then horizontal. It was if the repair App, the built-in recovery motion mode was running backwards. The first time the scientists witnessed this behaviour they were stupefied.
For this coordination to happen the entire sequence must be correctly tuned to the gravity vector which is never displayed in diagrams, it’s one of those things that is always assumed. So how did those scientists notice the pattern of repair? The first inkling happened with exploratory behaviour. ” Then, a mother rat once rushed out of its nest, dragging along an infant that was attached to her nipple. At some point the infant was scrapped off the nipple, finding itself in the middle of nowhere. It immediately became immobile and then performed a full-blown version of the (repair) sequence, first pivoting in place like a (spinning) top, then gradually superimposing on the horizontal dimension forward and then vertical movement.” The behaviour was captured on film. The conclusion from the frame by frame analysis was termed, ..’ a ‘warm-up’ so that in both ontogeny and recovery of movement. Ontogeny is the sequence of morphogenesis from the origin to mature development of an organism. The shape of how the embryo develops within the floating tension network is linked to the shape orientation to the cardinal axes during recovery of movement, ….” immobility embodies the origin of the axes for the unfolding of the ‘warm-up’ process.”
So what may be this ‘warm up’ sequence within the recovery of movement, what is so important about cardinal axes of orientation to the omnipresent gravity vector, what is this neurovestibular system doing? For the first time in history scientists are able to subtract the normal vestibular gravity reception using mutant mice with gene knock outs which lack the macular otoconia, the gravity accelerometer sensing gravity changes. These mutant mice, called C57BL/6JEi-het lack the small crystals of calcium carbonate in the saccule and utricle of the ear that under the influence of acceleration in a straight line cause stimulation of the hair cells by their movement relative to the gelatinous supporting substrate containing the embedded cilia of the hair cells. These mice can’t sense gravity, so are they different when subjected to different forces of gravity. If you trained these mice to become astro-mice-onauts with miniature NASA space suits how might they behave in space, how might they react to micro-gravity? Well you certainly don’t have to go that far, you can stimulate these mice in twice a gravity force, a 2G centrifugation force. Remember from a previous essay, gravity acts in a continuum, at one end is micro-gravity and at the other end is macro-gravity. If you want to understand micro-gravity you can test using macro-gravity since the brain sensing is the same except in the opposite direction to microgravity. I am darwing from the paper in Neuroscience 129 (2004) 461-471 EVIDENCE FOR MACULAR GRAVITY RECEPTOR MODULATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC, LIMBIC AND AUTONOMIC NUCLEI by P.M. Fuller, T.A.Jones, S.M.Jones and C.A.Fuller
Expression of c-fos is an indirect marker of neuronal activity because c-fos is often expressed when neurons fire action potentials. Upregulation of c-fos mRNA in a neuron indicates recent activity.
According to Wikipedia, “In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, c-Fos is a proto-oncogene that is the human homolog of the retroviral oncogene v-fos. It was first discovered in rat fibroblasts as the transforming gene of the FBJ MSV (Finkel–Biskis–Jinkins murine osteogenic sarcoma virus) and fos is named for feline osteosarcoma virus. It is a part of a bigger Fos family of transcription factors which includes c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2 as well as smaller FosB splice variants, FosB2 and deltaFosB2. It has been mapped to chromosome region 14q21→q31. C-fos encodes a 62 kDa protein, which forms heterodimer with c-jun (part of Jun family of transcription factors), resulting in the formation of AP-1 (Activator Protein-1) complex which binds DNA at AP-1 specific sites at the promoter and enhancer regions of target genes and converts extracellular signals into changes of gene expression. It plays an important role in many cellular functions and has been found to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers.”
The critical aspect of these mutant mice is with their macular gravity receptors which are lacking octonia making vestibular responses to linear acceleration absent yet their responses to head rotation are present. “Their gravity receptor function is selectively eliminated.” Mutant mice and normal what is termed wild-type mice were both exposed to 2G for 2 hours and compared to each other using c-Fos immunohistochemistry processing of their brains. In the wild-type macular signalling, …’ can selectively activate central nervous system nuclei throughout the neuroxis, including the limbic, hypothalamic and brainstem autonomic nuclei. The list of affected structures identified within the telencephalon is extensive, including: piriform cortex, dorsal endopiriform nucleus, cingulate cortex, lateral septal nucleus, bed nucleus of of the stria terminalis, nucleus of the vertical limb diagonal band, claustrum, medial preoptic area, shell of the accumbens nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the central amygdaloid nucleus. Within the thalamus the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, intergeniculate leaflet and the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. The hypothalamus c-Fos zones were the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, median preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, dorsolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventromedial suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, tuberommilaiary nucleus and the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus.
The reason I am listing all of these structures is not to impress the reader with all the detail. The reason is the extent of the structures is essentially a surprise. In the opening words of the article the authors reflect the common aspects of expected usefulness of the vestibular system. ” It is widely appreciated that the vestibular system plays a critical role in sensorimotor systems subserving postural equilibrium, sensory orientation and spatial perception.” But suddenly a host of other modulations now shift into prominence, the vestibular system can also modulate both the cardiovascular and the respiratory function via the autonomic nervous system plus thermoregulation. The advantage of evaluating mutant het mice is that their angular accelerometers are intact in these mutant mice but their gravity receptor functions are, ….’ selectively eliminated.’ By comparing the wild-type brain zones with the mutant mice after 2 hours of macrogravity stimulation the fos like immunoreactive neurons are in the parlance of these scientists as being tagged. The lists of these untagged mutant anatomical structures are the same zones that will be affected within a gravity accident called a brain concussion. Gravity is a continuum between microgravity and macro-gravity. Time is also a continuum between 2 hours of 2-G gravity force with 1 microsecond of a massive deceleration gravity force. For that reason I will label the concussion injury as the Einstein injury as the shape warping injury within brain space-time.
Not only is the vestibular involving balance and posture but the vestibular system is involved in the homeostatic, daily diernal 24 hour circadian rythms but also pacing the autonomic and behavioural functions too.
Here is a note form version of vestibular neuronitis from the Malacards website hosted by the Weitzman Institute.
“Disease Ontology: A inner ear infectious disease caused by a viral infection which involves inflammation of the vestibular nerve. It usually results in a complication of an upper respiratory infection. This causes sudden and severe vertigo, nausea and vomiting. Auditory symptoms are usually absent.”
What are the expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with vestibular neuronitis ?
Here are the tissues affected:
Bone Marrow, Whole Blood, Lymph Nodes, Cervix, Thymus, Brain, Cerebellum, Retina, Spinal Cord, Heart, Smooth Muscle, Skeletal Muscle, Small Intestine, Colon, Adipocyte, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Pancreas, Thyroid, Salivary Gland, Skin, Ovary, Uterus, Placenta, Prostate, Testis.
What are the genes related to vestibular neuronitis?
They are BET1, (blocked early in transport 1 homolog, IFT122,(intraflagellar transport 122 homolog), QRFPR, (pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide receptor), ASPRV1, (aspartic peptidases, retroviral-like 1), KCNJ13,(potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily 3, member 13), HPN(Hepsin)
What are the genes with vascular dementia associated to vestibular neuritis?
They are the genes KCNJ13,(potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily 3, member 13), and NGF (nerve growth factor).
What are the genes with benign paroxysmal positional nystagmus associated with vestibular neuritis?
They are the genes KCNJ13(potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily 3, member 13), and FBXW2(F-Box and WD repeat domain containing 2)
The LAT (linker for activation of T cells) gene is also reported involved with vestibular neuritis.
For most readers these genes are very unfamiliar. However what is enormously striking is the observation for the tissues involved with vestibular neuritis are the diversity of every single tissue type. In terms of priority, the vestibular system involves integration with every cell system. I find this simple last statement mind boggling. What is the common feature uniting the vestibular system to each and every cell, within all gene expression? The answer is gravity.
What holds the moon in orbit overhead is what binds our entire brain signalling system involving every single tissue group in the body. The entire system is oriented to gravity that is why the vestibular system is the king maker. Our brain will pivot as a signalling priority to gravity as the highest priority. Gravity is the core code of signalling through out the entire system at all dimensional scales, be they DNA to genes to tissues to shape sensing a la Snelson floating tension, the entire system is on to the vector of gravity. Take vestibular sensing away, and the entire brain network is vulnerable.
So if brain concussions are gravity injuries doesn’t it make empirical sense to treat the brain with gravity altering forces back into the vestibular system ? To reorient the brain back to its primal axis, just like that tiny mouse hauled off its mothers teat lost in a new environment. The mouse freezes which establishes the central axis where motion is returned to a starting point. Then the sequence is organized in the best way to recalibrate itself to the surrounding gravity field. First one direction back and forth, then another in perpendicular orientation then finally the vertical. This tiny mouse teaches us the importance of its own Nature built in repair sequence reorienting to the gravity vector.
If gravity were so important wouldn’t it have its own sense to reconnect to the gravity vector to reprime itself over and over every single day of our lives? It most certainly does and the answer will hopefully mesmerize you as much as it mesmerizes me when I realized only recently what this gravity reflex, lets call it the Einstein reflex is.
When we yawn we are orienting our system to calibrate to the gravity vector. Yawning is such a complex coordinated activity which involves 58 separate muscle groups. Yawning primes itself in the womb, babies have been videoed yawning within the womb as the system calibrates itself to the gravity vector. Autistic babies do not yawn in the womb. Yawning is the Einstein reflex orienting us to the gravity vector.
Within the depths of the ocean this fish yawns not because it is tired not because of a social stimulus of its partner yawning not because it is bored, the fish yawns to accomplish something magical. The Einstein reflex orients this fish to the hidden but present vector of gravity that orients his entire movement spectrum within its surroundings. The yawn primes its entire brain circuitry to pace the life signals coursing into all its diverse tissue groups inside its sleek shape in the continuum of cellular communication.