Lagena gravity sensing

sturgeon

The structure Lagena, may serve auditory function in all non-mammalian vertebrates plus primitive vestibular function in Lamprey and in terrestrial amphibians. 

Hagfish, the class Myxini (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped slime-producing marine animals (occasionally called slime eels). They are the only known living animals that have a skull but not a vertebral column. Along with lampreys, hagfish are jawless and are living fossils; hagfish are basal to vertebrates, and living hagfish remain similar to hagfish from 300 million years ago.

The classification of hagfish has been controversial. The issue is whether the hagfish is itself a degenerate type of vertebrate-fish (most closely related to lampreys), or else may represent a stage which precedes the evolution of the vertebral column (as do lancelets).  The original scheme groups hagfish and lampreys together as cyclostomes  (or historically, Agnatha), as the oldest surviving class of vertebrates alongside gnathosomes,  (the now-ubiquitous jawed-vertebrates).

But what is the significance to dwell on these living fossils, why is there if any relevance to their evolution? What does this have to do with brain concussions anyways? My first point is to understand brain concussion you have to understand what moves first in the deceleration- from the perspective of mass inside a moving object in those apatite polyhedrons, inside the Lagena structure. The first detection of acceleration is the first thing that actually moves. What is the shape of these apatite crystals ? It appears to be a tetrahedron-like tensegrity shape. To understand modern evolved tissue structures you have to know where they came from- how Nature designed them in the first place. That is the start off point for the investigation of this essay on Lagena structures. The other perspective is that the apparatus to sense acceleration or direction always involves something hard, something solid. The gist of the logic is since the hagfish behave as living fossils, they don’t have a vertebral column nor a complete brain case. The living fossil is speaking to us in its language of bone communication teaching us this is the language to follow in order to interpret balance distortion within a gravity field sensed within a hard substance. The brain is essentially an elastic tissue but to begin to comprehend its structure the ancient character of something hard is the source to begin to resolve the real interpretation. Hard tissue teaches about soft tissue deformations in gravity.

The functionality of crystals of apatite are the tiny mass elements that ancient vestibular systems detect the horizontal or vertical acceleration within the gravity vector always present as a reference point. apatitestr1If you look at the structure of apatite from the research lab of University of Manitoba Lab of Anton R. Chakhmouradian in the Department of Geological Sciences, the similarity to a tensegrity/tetrahedral architectural shape should be apparent to the observer. Listen to the words of Chakhmouradian as he describes the shape of the apatite structure:

“The crystal structure of apatite (viewed down the crystallographic axis) consists of (PO4)3+ groups (pink tetrahedra), monovalent anions like F and (OH) (purple spheres) in the “tunnels” parallel to the crystallographic axis, and Ca2+ cations in two coordinations: seven- and nine-fold. The CaO6(F,OH) and CaO9 polyhedra are colored yellow and green, respectively. A large number of natural and an even greater variety of synthetic compounds adopt this type of structure, or derivative structures arising from ordering of large cations in the Ca sites, small cations in the P sites, or anions in the “tunnels”. “

astronauts-browse

Moon rocks collected by astronauts during the Apollo program contain traces of apatite. What does this remarkable coincidence suggest ? Apatite is the element within ancient vestibular systems, it is part of our very bones and it is also found on the moon. The architecture of apatite is a tensegrity based tetrahedral linked lattice shape found on Earth and the moon.

Snelson tensegrity page14_01If you go onto Kenneth Snelson’s web site, the inventor of the first sculpture of floating tension tensegrity in 1948 one of his typical structures is from one of Snelson’s masts. Notice the tetrahedral aspect to the architecture. The polyhedron mast can have its own mirror image, which is prevalent throughout Nature’s domains as enantiomers, a left version and a right version. If apatite crystals are formed both on Earth and the moon, the design of tensegrity is logically outside of being on Earth alone. The design of tensegrity is a design from across the universe itself. The span of time between the appearance of the jawless hagfish with their apatite crystals shifting from positional changes within their vestibular apparatus until the Apollo astronauts cavorting about the 1/6 gravity on the lunar surface is of the magnitude over 300 million years old.

The surface of the Moon has been subject to billions of years of collisions with both small and large asteroidal and cometary materials. Over time, these impact processes have pulverized and “gardened” the surface materials, forming a fine grained layer termed “regolith”. The thickness of the regolith varies between 2 meters beneath the younger maria, to up to 20 meters beneath the oldest surfaces of the lunar highlands. The regolith is predominantly composed of materials found in the region, but also contains traces of materials ejected by distant impact craters. The term “mega-regolith” is often used to describe the heavily fractured bedrock directly beneath the near-surface regolith layer.

The regolith contains rocks, fragments of minerals from the original bedrock, and glassy particles formed during the impacts. In most of the lunar regolith, half of the particles are made of mineral fragments fused by the glassy particles; these objects are called agglutinates.  The chemical composition of the regolith varies according to its location; the regolith in the highlands is rich in aluminium and silica, just as the rocks in those regions. The regolith in the maria is rich in iron and magnesium and is silica-poor, as the basaltic rocks from which it is formed.

Descriptions of the specific packing of tetrahedra are from drawings by Buckminister Fuller:

Stabilization of Tension in Tensegrity Column: We put a steel sphere at the center of gravity of a cube which is also the center of gravity of tetrahedron and then run steel tubes from the center of gravity to four comers, W, X, Y, and Z, of negative tetrahedron (A).  Every tetrahedron's center of gravity has four radials from the center of gravity to the four vertexes of the tetrahedron (B).  In the juncture between the two tetrahedra (D),ball joints at
the center of gravity are pulled toward one another by a vertical tension stay, thus thrusting universally jointed legs outwardly, 
and their outward thrust is stably restrained by finite sling closure WXYZ.  This system is nonredundant: a basic discontinuous-compression continuous-tension or "tensegrity" structure.  It is possible to have a stack (column) of center-of-gravity radial tube 
tetrahedra struts (C) with horizontal (approximate) tension slingsand vertical tension guys and diagonal tension edges of the four superimposed tetrahedra, which, because of the (approximate) horizontal slings, cannot come any closer to one another, and, because 
of their vertical guys, cannot get any further away from one 
another, and therefore compose a stable relationships a structure.

tensegrity stackWhat is becoming apparent for the reader is that crystals stack in a conformational balance that both Snelson and Fuller were particularly elegant in describing, elements of molecules don’t just lie together like marbles in a jar, these complexes behave as ordered floating tension/compression architectures balanced within the entire structure.

Tensegrity Structures with Point Group Symmetry T

Tensegrity A

Tensegrity structures with point group symmetry, , will have the symmetries of rotations, but not reflections, of a tetrahedron. Since this T group tensegrity structure originates from tetrahedron, this structure has 7 symmetry axes, which are along the vertices and vertex diagonals of tetrahedron. The twelve symmetry operations; the identity, E, rotations by 120° and 240° about the vertices, 1, 2, 3 and 4; { C31, C32, C33, C34, C231, C232, C233, C234 }, and rotation by 180° about the ab, and c axes, { C2a, C2b, C2c }, form the symmetry group of the example structure. These twelve symmetry operations constitute the symmetry group T. We assume one regular orbit of nodes: there are 12 nodes, which have one to one correspondence with the 12 symmetry operations.

Tensegrity Structure T1

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1 gives the tensegrity structure T1.

Tensegrity Structure T2

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) connecting nodes E to node C33, and node C233 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -0.67 gives the tensegrity structure T2.

Tensegrity Structure T3

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2b with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1.74 gives the tensegrity structure T3.

Tensegrity Structure T4

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting nodes E to node C33, and node C233 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1.5 gives the tensegrity structure T4.

Tensegrity Structure T5

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -3 gives the tensegrity structure T5.

Tensegrity Structure T6

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2b with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -2.47 gives the tensegrity structure T6.

These series of architecture shapes show the evolution of different tensegrity shapes arriving from a standard tetrahedron configuration from the University of Cambridge, by Pandia Raj Ramar, Department of Engineering, 2008.

moon.and.earth

As the sleek sturgeon glides in shimmering sweeps of its muscles the very path of its flight thru the water is accomplished within the balance control by the Lagena structure, within the apatite matrix of shape twisting at the core of the gravity sensed changes. Nature has built this sensing capacity thru time as not only the steering capacity to define the motion of such a sleek sturgeon fish, all fish are linked, capable to navigate within the gravity field inside the water that covers most of the surface of our Earth. Life advanced from a basis of design to accomplish the motion of even the tiniest particles of life moving from one location to another. Positioning is defined by this elemental progression, defined as a shape sensing capacity to sense up from down to where the endless horizon appears that determines the surface of the waves cresting overhead.

moonshot1

The essence for the observer to contemplate this accomplishment is to respect that the basis of the start of such sensing is from a design that is also witnessed on the surface of the Earth in the gloved apatite dust handful clinging to a NASA astronaut hand.

Plaster casts of the hands of the Apollo 11 astronauts on display in the Apollo Treasures Gallery at the Apollo-Saturn V Center at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Cape Canaveral

Plaster casts of the hands of the Apollo 11 astronauts on display in the Apollo Treasures Gallery at the Apollo-Saturn V Center at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Cape Canaveral

The same design of gravity sensing polyhedron within the sturgeon’s Lagena is also figuratively found above on the Moon surface with a gravity pulsing tide creator responsible for those cresting ocean wave surges. The shape is a universal architectural tension/compression form whether inside a sturgeons balancing structure, inside the Lagena accelerometer or the grey Lagena apatite crystals polyhedron shape on the lunar surface, gravity is at the core of the observation for the shape sensing.

LAGENA Tafel_081_300

The shape is based on the principle arrangement of molecules defined under the mathematics of a floating tension/compression design first played with by a human in 1948, by Kenneth Snelson. The tensegrity, defined as tensional integrity by Buckminister Fuller who coined the phrase from Snelson’s revelation was the beginning of the description of Nature’s way of assembling shape into forming this coherence of design capable of sensing itself.

This tiny apatite shape defines the essence that shape itself is at the core of the capacity of Nature to create to sustain life in all its varied forms throughout the universe but especially on Earth which is our only perspective so far. The beginning to understand any concussion be it within the balance apparatus of a sturgeon fish or a human brain is to contemplate the essence of design that determines where the fish head points where the human head faces forward resolving how that very elegant coordinate X-Y-X position sensing within the field of gravity gets altered following a concussive blow. The brain senses itself based on a shape, on a floating compression/tension design found throughout the universe. To understand the beginning of how a concussion behaves is to study first the shape of the sensing of gravity that gets altered as the concussion happens in the first millisecond of change, then to follow the cascade of events that follows. It is learning this perspective that is the most difficult to grasp at first.

HEAD Traumatic-Brain-Injury

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Montreal Grandmother, Agnes Kent was saved by Raul Wallenberg from certain death, when he provided papers for her and her Mom to escape away from the Nazis. Today when asked what that escape meant, she replied,"Remind people, that while statesmen and whole countries remained silent and did nothing, a single individual chose to act, with ramifications that proved enormous. Similar choices confront us today. Write that simple truth she said, it can never be repeated often enough because the world keeps forgetting it."
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