Petroglyphs of the vortex

Ancient people gazed into the skies to move island to island across the expanse of their expansive zone of travel, Oceana over thousands of years. What we now call the Pacific Ocean.

SPIRAL The Solstice - Hohokam Indian Spiral Petroglyph | Fine Art Photography by Stephen W. Oachs the-solsticeThese ancient people left shapes on the sacred rocks. The shape lingers in the foreground below the horizon sweeping overhead stars in a pattern of the spiral, the universal symbol that transcends all borders. All ancient people out of direct contact with each other share to create this shape of spinning stars from the night canopy stretched over the horizon. This primal shape is of wonders of unity -of dimensions greater than the distant oceans yet centered into creations core. Gravity holds the image onto the rock’s surface gravity stands at the spirals center pulling in the elements of stars in formation. The swirling symbol is at the core of nature the shape of creation happening. The primitive hand carves the features  onto surfaces all over the globe. The energy of the galaxy the energy within the DNA molecule all spiral together linked by the logarithmic scales of mathematics of cohesion joining these two extremes. The vortex image points this singular reference to Summer’s Solstice acting as the map of connection with the changing climate.

SPIRAL Chuckwalla-Spring-spiral-petroglyph

The simple whorls on the fingertips of the artist are also this idea of constant image, the spiral of life. The motion of water traversing in a gravity slid has the spiral of the vortex of spinning water. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson’s treatise On Growth and Form describes how shells are formed by rotating a closed curve around a fixed axis, the shape of the curve remains fixed but its size grows in a geometric progression.  

fractal spiral

The mathematics of fractal spirals is the source of spinning smoke from the evenings fire the common nomadic gathering at day’s end across the globe.

Yet cactus plants in the middle of the desert also spin on their central axis, what is the design blueprint behind this shape ? Is there a common design platform for Nature ? Is this the Fibonacci spiral- the Phi spiral common to all of Nature ?

SPIRAL CACTUS Copyrighted_Image_Reuse_Prohibited_793556

“By duplicating and repeating the phi spiral in a circular array with a common center point a phi vortex is created,in this case, clockwise out from the center, this vortex is most commonly seen in water and air flows, as well as in galaxies,” is from the very exacting/exciting web site created by Marshall Lefferts at http://www.cosmometry.net

By duplicating the vortex, flipping it so that we have a complementary clockwise flow, and overlaying it onto the counter-clockwise vortex we create a phi double spiral (see illustration below ). This is a fundamental field pattern that can be understood as a cross-section of a complete spherical/toroidal energy field. It is most commonly seen in plants and particular water flow wave patterns.”

 phi double spiral centered at Node 4

 

Boundary Condition ” When a phi vortex or double spiral is created a synergetic phenomenon occurs that is otherwise not apparent when viewing a single phi spiral. As can be seen in the illustration above, at exactly 3 nodes out from the center point around which the vortex/double spiral is rotating there appears a distinct circle. This is the result of the phi spiral first expanding outward from the center, then as it completes its first three fractal arcs (nodes) it momentarily contracts back upon itself before expanding outward again. This creates a boundary condition, a circle (or sphere in a 3D field) that defines a potential surface boundary and a complementary inside and outside relationship to the energy field. This boundary can be seen as the necessary limit of a given entity required for the entity to come into form. For example a pine cone has an obvious double spiral pattern inherent in its form that has a limit at which it stops manifesting in physical form (though energetically its field pattern extends beyond this limit” 

So what do all these cool pictures of spirals have to do with brain concussions, if anything at all ?

Everything.

We inhabit a brain made up of fractal tensegrity spirals within our very DNA. Our brain itself is based on these assembly principles designed under constraints under boundary condition perhaps as Lefferts’ might call them or as I term a la Snelson with balanced tension/compression between all elements. They are structures that Nature builds under its own from blueprints that create shape from nothingness. But even nothingness is a statement of ignorance when we have empty space we still have gravity occupying it, so it looks like there is always something in proximity we are just not able to measure it.

Moon on the Tides AQA Poetry Anthology Model Essays Relationships, Conflict, Character and VoiceWhen ancient man gazed at the floating moon so big in the field of view how could he begin to comprehend how it floats in the sky above ? How could he possibly think he was related to this orb on a shape based design by Nature. That is the amazing jump in our perception of what is around us, perhaps how and what we are made of. We are assembled like vortexes stirred in the water to create shape from amorphous liquid water. Our brain has the very same vortex behaviour as the vortex shape of galaxies overhead, guiding our ancient navigators to their new destinations.

Our brain behaves under conditions as performance under vulnerabilities according to its design. Our brain will vortex onto itself. Observers have already noticed such torque in describing it as Yakovlevian torque. “If you place your vertical bar so it is parallel with the midline along the middle and anterior of the scan, then sometimes the left hemisphere will extend beyond this bar (i.e., torque around from the left toward the right hemisphere). I have seen one left-handed subject whose right hemisphere torqued around toward the left, so based on my own experience, this happens in < 1% of the subjects I’ve seen. While I haven’t kept track of the number of left-to-right occipital petalia cases, I know it’s quite common. Per Art Toga and Paul Thompson, the “Yakovlevian anticlockwise torque … includes the frequent extension of the left occipital lobe across the midline (over the right occipital lobe), bending the interhemispheric fissure towards the right.” Arthur W. Toga and Paul M. Thompson, “MAPPING BRAIN ASYMMETRY,” Laboratory of Neuro Imaging Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA, USA

occipital_petalia_left_to_rightTermed occipital petalia, the left right asymmetry causes the brain to torque around a central axis into the midline zone. The behaviour of the brain under acceleration forces during brain concussion are brains designed by nature that move in particular ways. In the vernacular concussions are described as slamming into boney contours within the head. But that is not all that is happening. Nature has designed the brain to torque onto itself as a spiral pattern evident in life all around us even above us. To understand a brain concussion you first have to understand how nature handles shape how the vortex is born. What is petalia ? The incredible aspect is as we accumulate languages our brain zone for language pushes against the bone to expand the dimensions of this communication volume. The expanded bone is termed petalia. Now the brain is lopsided, therefore it will spin if hit.

In our heritage, evolutions of  mammals swam through Earth’s first environment, standing aside we can now see inside their heads with our modern imaging devices. We see tiny spirals on each side, within the tiny bilateral cochlea shape, microphones listening to the universe sensing which stabilizes the head, the sense of where the horizon is the most important information all these multitudes of mammals need. The sense of what is up- even the glimpse of a full moon rising above the horizon as the dolphin breaches- flying momentarily into the sky. This mammalian sensing of the vortex of gravity within a vortex of bone, is shape sensing gravity. If you want to understand how the brain reacts to gravity you have to understand the reference to shape design within the brain to unravel the mystery. To follow the shape of the vortex.

COCHLEA v43n2-ketten4en

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Nisga’a mask

Nisgaa_mask_Louvre_MH_81-22-1The Nisga’a, often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as Nisga’a, are an Indigenous nation or First Nation in Canada. They live in the Nass River valley of northwestern British Columbia. This mask is a permanent expression covering the human features beneath its surface, a face frozen in time. Yet the face is the brain also moving in time its features a record of the events that warp across its surfaces. The human face is not only a reflection of sweeping emotions spilling over its contours -the face is a glimpse of the brain itself both linked together as shapes within shapes.

MASK CHEEVERS 2169153

The history of Canada overlaps in the use of masks to cover the faces of the Native Peoples’ elaborate ancient ceremonies transferring into modern pageants on frozen ice with the new spectacle of sports transformations defending the critical space of the goalies zone of stature. Our perception is burdened by this mask staring at the observer, open eyes- open mouth gaping at the emotions, somehow contained yet hidden from view. We perceive our faces as masks yet in their flickering emotions lies the story of our individual sagas etched into the shape that is linked into the tension of the brain tissue itself. As our face appears so is the state of the brain. The face is not a mask unattached to its underneath surface of bone. The face is the brain. The face is a composed surface, balanced in a web of tensegrity held into compression with tension. The same Snelson floating tension link is the design of the brain which behaves in the same fashion of tension balanced with compression.

TENSEGRITY FRACTAL WEED 7186496382_32f30663d2_k

Tensegrity is the shape within Nature that links objects that establishes self sensing, each design of floating tension acting between molecules or between seeds spreading across the wind. Shape links the intelligence separated by distance.

FACE DISTORT FRACTAL wlleonardoThe locality of elements is also linked into the distance away from that specific inner boundary. Nature designs the elaborate progression from within the embryo into becoming a coherent series of attachments that link connection with the architecture of the total shape. The shape outside is balanced to the shape inside acting as a web of compression balanced into tension.
Tensegrity Cores by_Fagerstrom (1)The inner fields of floating tension are bound onto the outer surfaces as one coherent flow of elements. Each scale of attachment has a final place of position established as the embryo morphs into its ultimate assembly of shaped final form. The Nature of form is the Nature of shape that determines the progression into intelligence, assembled in this architecture established by tension balanced with compression.

TENSEGRITY SURFACE screen-shot-2009-10-18-at-45102-pm

At the surface we see shape, that is what we are familiar with. We are not familiar to shape acting as the position of the brain in action as a state of the brain at that moment, reflecting the metabolism within the brain. This shape is best transformed into the mathematics of map comparison. Only after this translation into another language of description can we grab the subtle differences that we miss in our perception. What is the face of autism, is there such a difference? Can there be a mobile mask that defines the autism within the brain that becomes the shape of the autistic face? Lets examine the mathematical evidence of such transformation, of such shape coherence.

Montrealers are used to the face of the acrobat from the Cirque du Soleil, a masked performer that sweeps overhead of the audience. We transform our belief of mobility into the exuberance of such forms. Shape is a fleeting mask of surprise shaking our immediate expectation, shifting our fixation on the face shape as the message from the brain. We expect a symmetry of left versus right shape. It is precisely that expectation that begins our analysis of autistic face changes.

MASK CIRQUE DE SOLEIL 41E253B690FF4351BE9A7781E46F1559

Drapped as a mesh over the face is the actual mesh within the face that is the surface of shape of the face. That is the way to begin the transformation of how to link the anatomy that defines emotional expression into real brain metabolism. A performers mask is defined by its external design that merely fits over  the overall head size of the artist.

FACE HOW FORMED article-2169390-13F1E07A000005DC-856_468x414 The early progression of the human face looks like the essence of a Nisga’a mask with its wide eye brows closed stark nostril holes and gaping open mouth. The face is embedded into the structure with the brain as they form together. unlike a bridge structure spanning a distance the structure of the face is both bone and skin surface.

We see the transfer of genes within the shape of DNA. But what happens to the transfer of sensing between brain into face?

TENSEGRITY doublehelix

The DNA double helix is a Snelson design of floating tension. Listen to the description from the report: Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA by authors, Liedl THögberg BTytell JIngber DEShih WM from the journal Nat Nanotechnol. 2010 Jul;5(7):520-4.

Tensegrity, or tensional integrity, is a property of a structure indicating a reliance on a balance between components that are either in pure compression or pure tension for stability. Tensegrity structures exhibit extremely high strength-to-weight ratios and great resilience, and are therefore widely used in engineering, robotics and architecture. Here, we report nanoscale, prestressed, three-dimensional tensegrity structures in which rigid bundles of DNA double helices resist compressive forces exerted by segments of single-stranded DNA that act as tension-bearing cables. Our DNA tensegrity structures can self-assemble against forces up to 14 pN, which is twice the stall force of powerful molecular motors such as kinesin or myosin. The forces generated by this molecular prestressing mechanism can be used to bend the DNA bundles or to actuate the entire structure through enzymatic cleavage at specific sites. In addition to being building blocks for nanostructures, tensile structural elements made of single-stranded DNA could be used to study molecular forces, cellular mechanotransduction and other fundamental biological processes.

Essentially the human face is integrated into the mechanotransduction within the brain behaving as the same shape output stretched across the surface. The face is the state of balanced tension/compression of the brain, they are linked as one. The Nisga’a People had it right, the face is the representation of the brain of the person behind the mask.

FACE bones-and-muscles-muscles-of-the-faceThe naked face stripped of flesh stares out from the white pages of the anatomy text. Unseen muscles now displayed as if on their own action of motion. The sense of mass is felt in the directions of tension implicit from the drawing neatly labelled for the eye to appreciate. That is the label of deception that a typical dissection presentation reveals. Nature created the muscles within the fabric of the face both with the mobility of the skin at the surface, both attached to the structure of bone beneath, they may appear in dissection as separated but they are united in attachment. That is the unnatural stripping away of layers as if an artist were creating the volume layered surface by layered surface.

Sculptured faces loom overhead, permanent in their dimensions yet real faces predict the brain within.

WASHINGTON MOUNT RUSHMORE GEDC0853Imagine inside the Mount Rushmore rock is elastic so that vibrations from nearby volcanic strata are pushed into the massive face. Imagine the face and the brain develop in exquisite coordination such that differences in facial shape can be indicative perhaps predictive of underlying brain pathology. Only the shape sensitivity of a Snelson floating tension/compression net can accommodate such exquisite coordination. Such face-brain shape relationship have been noticed by researchers using surface modelling techniques comparing the faces of autism spectrum disorders to unaffected children to reveal atypical facial asymmetry through the direct effect of brain growth on those autism spectrum disorder faces. Let’s look at Face-brain asymmetry in autism spectrum disorders from the report of Molecular Psychiatry (2008) 13, 614-623 by P Hammond, C Forster-Gibson, AE Chudley, JE Allanson, TJ Hutton, SA Farrell, J McKenzie, JJA Holden and MES Lewis.

The faces of the participants were captured using commercial photogrammetric devices the law enforcement agencies typically use for facial recognition patterns or maxillo facial surgeons use for devising tricky surgical facial bone reconfiguration plastic surgery.

Simple inspection of two-dimensional analysis of facial features has not detected the subtleties of surface forms of the face that characterize facial phenotypes of a variety of neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, recent advances of laser based utilization of 3 dimensional image scanning have now enabled, more sensitive surface shape analysis of facial shape contours enabling accurate 3D facial gestalt of defining disease characteristics, like Fabry’s disease. The technique acronym employs 3D dense surface models (DSM) of face shape capable of detecting statistically significant facial asymmetry within autistic  spectrum disorder compared to age/sex/racially matched controls.

Where does the essence of shape sensing reveal itself ?

SHAPE SIGNALS IN CELLS 3.largeFollowing the signal induction started via a shape change across the surface as a distortion/compression, a floating tension alteration within the local neighbourhood of attachments, the sequence resolves into a domino effect of cascading reactions: transduction then transcription affecting DNA production of messenger RNA creating translation of the protein finally releasing a product outside of the cell. But the important aspect is the cell shape is more than just an outline of the cell as appearance. The shape in the sensed form of different strains arriving onto the distortion of the cell transforms the output of the cell. The protein product released is different, this assembly line of products changes as the tension changes. As the shape alters this deformation is really information. From the point of view of code language the tension/compression motion is information that we are just beginning to perceive that Nature has been employing for a very long time. The shape of DNA is accepted as the shape of inheritance. The shape of the face as the brain is the reality of the expressed strain changes reflected in the mobile face envelope. The human face is not a mask. The human face is shape as expressed information of the state of the brain. The object is to discover the mask of concussion, how it paints the features of the human face. There is no doubt in my mind that this new mask exists.

Snelson floating tension faces as surfaced attributes of tensegrity shapes

Snelson floating tension faces as surfaced attributes of tensegrity shapes

Look again at the diagram of the signal links. If you trace the step by step from one digit to the next what happens at stage 6 ? That’s where the information is in the form of the shape of the contact to the next cell and the next cell and the next cell. You see the coherence of the information is within these connections to shape. You are looking at the mobile mask of the brain when you stare at yourself in a mirror. Even a very famous face.

FACE MANDELA article-2519099-19CF5A0E00000578-696_964x778

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Vortex

Supercell by Sean Heavey

Supercell by Sean Heavey

The shape of energy tends toward rotation due to the presence of gravity. Rotation within the gases of the atmosphere. The shape of Nature is symbolized within the vortex.

Does the vortex shape exist outside of Earth away from the grasp of gravity ?

SPACE TENSEGRITY 04a9c0782af9aed542be22bde52c6a49Does tensegrity within Nature carry its design past the confines of Earth? Or is Earth part of the tensegrity web? Does tensegrity only happen within our gravity based planet or is the tensegrity shape of objects universal throughout the universe? Crystals on the lunar surface within the regolith would seem to lead an observer to consider a microshape as a particle that can be assembled anywhere, within the domain of our immediate Milky Way. Even from meteorites that continually smack into the lunar surface. Similar shape crystals detect gravity in our own vestibular apparatus. The dust that clings to a lunar astronauts glove is within us as accelerometers. We are built from the universe.

Can an astronaut have a concussion in space ? Is gravity a necessary component for the head collision to happen, what about the shape of the brain itself? What happens to the shape of the brain as it distorts as it vortexes on itself, where is this force felt ? Water vortexes into all manner of shapes that get mimicked in life forms throughout Nature. We exist in an open system to only look at our immediate surroundings by rejecting the collisions of objects into either the moon or Earth.

IDL TIFF file

Objects of collision from 2005 to 2013 on Lunar surface.

What happens within the immune system as anti-gravity is experienced, is there such a response as anti-tensegrity?
ASTRONAUT lostInside the cells of this astronaut the time frame has always been inside an orientation with direction. The surface horizon has always been present toward a position pointing to light during the day, to the stars at night. This constancy of a daily cycle like a millennial switch on-off through first the water phase days than onto the dust days of evolution. Yet this dependence on position on the very establishment of shape as the means to detect is scaled within the smallest of the cells at their very points of attachment. The existence of multitudes of connections becomes a convergence of shape establishing itself as the web of life. The breathing astronaut carries his atmosphere with him inside the vulnerable vacuum outside the space craft.

But what of the water that makes up most of his body does water hold shape too despite its amorphous looseness?

VORTEX H2O 2007_03_DSC_0266bEven suction at the draining of a pool can spin water molecules into the familiar vortex forming above the drain. But where did the shape suddenly come from ? The spin volume wasn’t present at first, the shape appeared out of the shape of stable water itself. Shape is this architecture of form that balances tension into compression within the coherence of the form, the floating tension/compression that Snelson first grasped in 1948. But shape is everywhere even on those crystals stirred into impact shedding craters on the Lunar regolith surface.

How do the tensegrity points of contact change in anti-gravity within the immune production say at the bottom of the astronauts lungs breathing his artificial atmosphere upside down in floating anti-tensegrity ? How do cells perform when there is no up down or sideways?

Sometimes the only real remaining evidence from horrific encounters from the past are discovered in the ground. The most durable material being the bones.

BONES Sr_Salme3

The discovery of arrows penetrating into the body is proof of a violent ending of life. But what if instead of arrows penetration occurs into the body affecting the bones themselves but the effect is due to anti-gravity. According to mounting observations, “ It seems that the cells of the immune system and the cells that remodel bone regulate each other’s function.” 

This summation comes via comments from both Joseph Arron, students of the Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program and Yongwon Choi, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York,New York 10021, USA in the article Bone versus Immune System in Nature |Vol 408|30 November 2000|. Imagine the arrows  in this image are the figurative arrows of the vector of gravity acting into the bone. As astronauts return to gravity their bones are thinner from their exposure to anti-gravity, but is the immune system changing too?

tensegrity nuclear matrix 1-s2.0-S1073874608000479-gr4What does a collapsed tensegrity object look like ?

TENSEGRITRY COLLAPSEThe difference is when the reestablished tension/compression is reconnected forcing the entire balanced shape to become into existence like the still water turning into a vortex above a drain in a pool, shape suddenly appears.

TENSEGRITY on hand The shape change is not the envelope that is coherent the shape change is the ability to accomplish sensing within the shape change. Notice the  nuclear matrix transcription factors in the diagram above. The shape based transcription performs the copying of DNA into messenger RNA in gene expression. Shape in shape out, is also information in information out from shape changes. Loose the shape in detecting a bacteria, a virus, on contact T-cells. T-cells are constantly vigilant to fight off foreign particles in our surroundings. But T-cells are also secreting a molecule that inhibits the development plus the activation of bone-absorbing cells. The shape of the immune response is linked to the bone response as a dynamic relationship.

“Rigid bone appears as unchanging but is a constant yin-yang of addition then subtraction, as secretion and resorption of the bone matrix. These opposite actions are carried out by two cell types-osteoblasts and osteoclasts which are in balanced equilibrium maintaining skeletal integrity.”

The shape of integrity, could this be our constant architecture, tensegrity as tensional integrity revealing itself? The reflection occurs as we age we lose shape capacity within our architecture, certainly as the bony skeleton ages the shape of the older face is like the weathered features of a landscape. We loose definition, skin sags wrinkles sweep like waves of distortion over the face. But those surface changes are bone changes beneath the surface. Shape is the code of the messengers that our cells signal to each other, shape is the outcome of the primal communication. Shape is the vortex that spins as if twirling off-axis.

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What started originally as a query in my own little laboratory took on a different aspect of how Nature builds things, how shape is not the outcome but shape is the motion of communication. How information gets transferred through shape changes. How information is also lost through shape changes. How concussion is all about the distortion of elastic shape within the structure of the entire brain. It’s not about the brain, in common understanding is a cartoon style banging into the inner boundary of the bony head case, it’s how the brain actually changes shape itself how it spins on its own axis, how this spin motion, how this vortex of brain tissue reveals itself in tension/compression changes.

We are surrounded by the spinning shape of vortex motion. The eddies around rocks in  a river, the molecules within the air, the release of pressure from the wingtips of a humming-bird, all reveal vortices as signatures of shape predominating, creating patterns from nothing. VORTEX tumblr_inline_msd73kelin1qz4rgp

The fascination to shape is its VORTEX BROAD BILLED HB 5382043362_f7fc9fcb6c_zuniversal appearance at every scale of our experience. Shape is the nano scale of roughness at the contact of proteins reaching into each others domain of influence. Shape is the scale of wrinkles of twisted bone channels reacting to the stress of gravity shedding weight down the length of the walking bone. Scaling up is the scale of the Earth vortexing within another vortex centered by our Sun orb in the planetary motions of our own galaxy form.

VORTEX Boeing_777_Air_Turbulence_Wallpaper_1600x1200_wallpaperhereMan made shape at the wing tips of a Boeing 777 or the tufts of blurred air tips from a hovering hummingbird all display this vortex effect, the shape of dynamic disturbance within the chaotic mixing of motion in action.

Life itself depends on the vortex to promote life.

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As the fish vortex descends into the depths the moment transitions into a spawning spasm within the rising release of their eggs and sperm as the silver vortex of spiral motion swirls breaching into the surface. The very birth of these bonefish is determined in the shape of turbulent release within the upward spiralling vortex beneath the rising moonlight penetrating their flickering forms, the fertilized eggs spreading over the oceans waves spreading new life away from their parents vortex spiral.

But where does bone come into this story? What does bone have to do with the shape of the brain? What does the vortex shape have to do with the brain during a concussion ? A lot, here’s some evidence. So what are a few of the other generalities, that involve shape how Nature employs shape to accomplish things?

The mammalian body plan is symmetric, there is the chiral character of left with right. The structure of the objects in this essay have two sides to their design in 3D space that are mirror images to each other. Place one side over the other, they don’t match up. Handedness is everywhere especially how shape is designed in the floating tension integrity of balanced tension, the chirality of tensegrity. The other central characteristic is the presence of gravity that imposes its very magnificence on all cellular design all cellular communication. If you try to make a gene deletion within the vestibular system by not having the shape of the semicircular canals. Such a deletion has a super caustic effect on the entire shape sensing a la Snelson formation of sensing gravity. Every cell is lost in terms of transcription-translation-translocation. No progression toward the next generation – it’s a game killer releasing loss of coherence. Destroy the sensing of gravity is the doomsday bomb of the entire sensing system. Life transfer will get wiped out. (Please read my other essays on Snelson shape sensing. )

Life signalling has had a few billion years to create a prioritization of establishing gravity, vestibular orientation to know where the buoyant horizon is as early life forms took shape in the oceans. Stability was built into sensing the flatness of a body form moving through water. The genius of Nature is that Nature used shape as form to accomplish building the architecture of life. The vortex is a primal shape of life revealing itself all around us.

Lose water on the runway swirled into a vortex from the suction of a jet engine

Loose water on the runway swirled into a vortex from the suction of a jet engine

The shape of bone is transformed, guided by a critical protein called BMP4, bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. If the shape of the semicircular canals is clobbered at this point within an embryo the real observation is that a bone protein is a central character, as if the mega Don of all cells, the first boss of sensing. All other players answers to the big boss. The vestibular system drives the autonomic system. When you suffer a brain concussion you crash the vestibular system first which has effects on all other systems especially the autonomic system that organizes all the daily critical tasks of pacing things like the heart and lungs, the beat and breath of life. For the first time in human existence as astronauts ventured into micro-gravity-less space travel, life was exposed to antigravity. Life within the cells reacted under that loss of central vestibular orientation. The very breathing pattern of the astronauts changes, from a intercostal-diaphragm muscle inspiration becoming an abdominal based motion of breathing. This is statistical relevant data. This muscle sensing switching also affects the immune system how detection of any foreign substance interacts within the body. NASA blames the ease of acquiring colds or sinus stuffiness to a shift in body fluids. Something more massive than fluids is altering the entire dynamics in antigravity it’s causing subtle changes in the very essential sensing to the horizon, the brain stops yawning. The brain can’t calibrate to the sensing to the now removed gravity vector. Lose gravity in the antigravity – you force anti-tensegrity into the entire signalling system. You lose shape sensing. But the brain is a wizard in response -the brain compensates instantaneously. But the brain still can’t trigger onto the horizon so it builds another horizon that doesn’t really work. That is in my mind similar to what happens during the first few instances of a brain concussion. The brain loses the horizon. The concussed body struggles to its feet but staggers it’s sensing of gravity horribly broken. The brain in anti-gravity response. The effects slow down in time to the very metabolism of how bone changes to the time frame of how our bones age. The process of bone aging accelerates in time. In antigravity the bones lose their shape. But since this is such a slow insidious process the changes are not immediately apparent. But what also happens during the brain concussion is a brain vortex, the brain rotates on itself always. The brain is a shape sensing object exquisitely designed from billions of years of evolution. But the brain is also chiral a left- a right- the brain is a floating tension compression object like other objects in buoyant life. The brain has petalia influencing character. Our capacity to speak has caused the brain language zones to push against our inner bone case causing the bone to expand. Our brains are lopsided, asymmetric so they will rotate, it’s called Yakovlevian torque

PETALIA BRAIN nrn1009-f2There’s that bone-brain conversation again. What do returning long mission astronauts suffer from? Staggering vestibular re-adaptation plus defined bone loss. The astronauts bone shape have aged while in space as if time had accelerated.

The vortex is the shape of motion preferred by Nature to scale itself in the atmosphere, along the wing tips of a hummingbird or inside the brain itself. The vortex shape is the state of the essence of shape sensing using the architecture of building tensegrity based coherent objects where shape was not present before. Shape can be invisible but shape is always present, just like gravity. Just like a black hole jet vortexing into gravity creation shape.

BlackHoleJet2

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Lagena gravity sensing

sturgeon

The structure Lagena, may serve auditory function in all non-mammalian vertebrates plus primitive vestibular function in Lamprey and in terrestrial amphibians. 

Hagfish, the class Myxini (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped slime-producing marine animals (occasionally called slime eels). They are the only known living animals that have a skull but not a vertebral column. Along with lampreys, hagfish are jawless and are living fossils; hagfish are basal to vertebrates, and living hagfish remain similar to hagfish from 300 million years ago.

The classification of hagfish has been controversial. The issue is whether the hagfish is itself a degenerate type of vertebrate-fish (most closely related to lampreys), or else may represent a stage which precedes the evolution of the vertebral column (as do lancelets).  The original scheme groups hagfish and lampreys together as cyclostomes  (or historically, Agnatha), as the oldest surviving class of vertebrates alongside gnathosomes,  (the now-ubiquitous jawed-vertebrates).

But what is the significance to dwell on these living fossils, why is there if any relevance to their evolution? What does this have to do with brain concussions anyways? My first point is to understand brain concussion you have to understand what moves first in the deceleration- from the perspective of mass inside a moving object in those apatite polyhedrons, inside the Lagena structure. The first detection of acceleration is the first thing that actually moves. What is the shape of these apatite crystals ? It appears to be a tetrahedron-like tensegrity shape. To understand modern evolved tissue structures you have to know where they came from- how Nature designed them in the first place. That is the start off point for the investigation of this essay on Lagena structures. The other perspective is that the apparatus to sense acceleration or direction always involves something hard, something solid. The gist of the logic is since the hagfish behave as living fossils, they don’t have a vertebral column nor a complete brain case. The living fossil is speaking to us in its language of bone communication teaching us this is the language to follow in order to interpret balance distortion within a gravity field sensed within a hard substance. The brain is essentially an elastic tissue but to begin to comprehend its structure the ancient character of something hard is the source to begin to resolve the real interpretation. Hard tissue teaches about soft tissue deformations in gravity.

The functionality of crystals of apatite are the tiny mass elements that ancient vestibular systems detect the horizontal or vertical acceleration within the gravity vector always present as a reference point. apatitestr1If you look at the structure of apatite from the research lab of University of Manitoba Lab of Anton R. Chakhmouradian in the Department of Geological Sciences, the similarity to a tensegrity/tetrahedral architectural shape should be apparent to the observer. Listen to the words of Chakhmouradian as he describes the shape of the apatite structure:

“The crystal structure of apatite (viewed down the crystallographic axis) consists of (PO4)3+ groups (pink tetrahedra), monovalent anions like F and (OH) (purple spheres) in the “tunnels” parallel to the crystallographic axis, and Ca2+ cations in two coordinations: seven- and nine-fold. The CaO6(F,OH) and CaO9 polyhedra are colored yellow and green, respectively. A large number of natural and an even greater variety of synthetic compounds adopt this type of structure, or derivative structures arising from ordering of large cations in the Ca sites, small cations in the P sites, or anions in the “tunnels”. “

astronauts-browse

Moon rocks collected by astronauts during the Apollo program contain traces of apatite. What does this remarkable coincidence suggest ? Apatite is the element within ancient vestibular systems, it is part of our very bones and it is also found on the moon. The architecture of apatite is a tensegrity based tetrahedral linked lattice shape found on Earth and the moon.

Snelson tensegrity page14_01If you go onto Kenneth Snelson’s web site, the inventor of the first sculpture of floating tension tensegrity in 1948 one of his typical structures is from one of Snelson’s masts. Notice the tetrahedral aspect to the architecture. The polyhedron mast can have its own mirror image, which is prevalent throughout Nature’s domains as enantiomers, a left version and a right version. If apatite crystals are formed both on Earth and the moon, the design of tensegrity is logically outside of being on Earth alone. The design of tensegrity is a design from across the universe itself. The span of time between the appearance of the jawless hagfish with their apatite crystals shifting from positional changes within their vestibular apparatus until the Apollo astronauts cavorting about the 1/6 gravity on the lunar surface is of the magnitude over 300 million years old.

The surface of the Moon has been subject to billions of years of collisions with both small and large asteroidal and cometary materials. Over time, these impact processes have pulverized and “gardened” the surface materials, forming a fine grained layer termed “regolith”. The thickness of the regolith varies between 2 meters beneath the younger maria, to up to 20 meters beneath the oldest surfaces of the lunar highlands. The regolith is predominantly composed of materials found in the region, but also contains traces of materials ejected by distant impact craters. The term “mega-regolith” is often used to describe the heavily fractured bedrock directly beneath the near-surface regolith layer.

The regolith contains rocks, fragments of minerals from the original bedrock, and glassy particles formed during the impacts. In most of the lunar regolith, half of the particles are made of mineral fragments fused by the glassy particles; these objects are called agglutinates.  The chemical composition of the regolith varies according to its location; the regolith in the highlands is rich in aluminium and silica, just as the rocks in those regions. The regolith in the maria is rich in iron and magnesium and is silica-poor, as the basaltic rocks from which it is formed.

Descriptions of the specific packing of tetrahedra are from drawings by Buckminister Fuller:

Stabilization of Tension in Tensegrity Column: We put a steel sphere at the center of gravity of a cube which is also the center of gravity of tetrahedron and then run steel tubes from the center of gravity to four comers, W, X, Y, and Z, of negative tetrahedron (A).  Every tetrahedron's center of gravity has four radials from the center of gravity to the four vertexes of the tetrahedron (B).  In the juncture between the two tetrahedra (D),ball joints at
the center of gravity are pulled toward one another by a vertical tension stay, thus thrusting universally jointed legs outwardly, 
and their outward thrust is stably restrained by finite sling closure WXYZ.  This system is nonredundant: a basic discontinuous-compression continuous-tension or "tensegrity" structure.  It is possible to have a stack (column) of center-of-gravity radial tube 
tetrahedra struts (C) with horizontal (approximate) tension slingsand vertical tension guys and diagonal tension edges of the four superimposed tetrahedra, which, because of the (approximate) horizontal slings, cannot come any closer to one another, and, because 
of their vertical guys, cannot get any further away from one 
another, and therefore compose a stable relationships a structure.

tensegrity stackWhat is becoming apparent for the reader is that crystals stack in a conformational balance that both Snelson and Fuller were particularly elegant in describing, elements of molecules don’t just lie together like marbles in a jar, these complexes behave as ordered floating tension/compression architectures balanced within the entire structure.

Tensegrity Structures with Point Group Symmetry T

Tensegrity A

Tensegrity structures with point group symmetry, , will have the symmetries of rotations, but not reflections, of a tetrahedron. Since this T group tensegrity structure originates from tetrahedron, this structure has 7 symmetry axes, which are along the vertices and vertex diagonals of tetrahedron. The twelve symmetry operations; the identity, E, rotations by 120° and 240° about the vertices, 1, 2, 3 and 4; { C31, C32, C33, C34, C231, C232, C233, C234 }, and rotation by 180° about the ab, and c axes, { C2a, C2b, C2c }, form the symmetry group of the example structure. These twelve symmetry operations constitute the symmetry group T. We assume one regular orbit of nodes: there are 12 nodes, which have one to one correspondence with the 12 symmetry operations.

Tensegrity Structure T1

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1 gives the tensegrity structure T1.

Tensegrity Structure T2

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) connecting nodes E to node C33, and node C233 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -0.67 gives the tensegrity structure T2.

Tensegrity Structure T3

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2b with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1.74 gives the tensegrity structure T3.

Tensegrity Structure T4

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting nodes E to node C33, and node C233 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1.5 gives the tensegrity structure T4.

Tensegrity Structure T5

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -3 gives the tensegrity structure T5.

Tensegrity Structure T6

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2b with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -2.47 gives the tensegrity structure T6.

These series of architecture shapes show the evolution of different tensegrity shapes arriving from a standard tetrahedron configuration from the University of Cambridge, by Pandia Raj Ramar, Department of Engineering, 2008.

moon.and.earth

As the sleek sturgeon glides in shimmering sweeps of its muscles the very path of its flight thru the water is accomplished within the balance control by the Lagena structure, within the apatite matrix of shape twisting at the core of the gravity sensed changes. Nature has built this sensing capacity thru time as not only the steering capacity to define the motion of such a sleek sturgeon fish, all fish are linked, capable to navigate within the gravity field inside the water that covers most of the surface of our Earth. Life advanced from a basis of design to accomplish the motion of even the tiniest particles of life moving from one location to another. Positioning is defined by this elemental progression, defined as a shape sensing capacity to sense up from down to where the endless horizon appears that determines the surface of the waves cresting overhead.

moonshot1

The essence for the observer to contemplate this accomplishment is to respect that the basis of the start of such sensing is from a design that is also witnessed on the surface of the Earth in the gloved apatite dust handful clinging to a NASA astronaut hand.

Plaster casts of the hands of the Apollo 11 astronauts on display in the Apollo Treasures Gallery at the Apollo-Saturn V Center at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Cape Canaveral

Plaster casts of the hands of the Apollo 11 astronauts on display in the Apollo Treasures Gallery at the Apollo-Saturn V Center at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Cape Canaveral

The same design of gravity sensing polyhedron within the sturgeon’s Lagena is also figuratively found above on the Moon surface with a gravity pulsing tide creator responsible for those cresting ocean wave surges. The shape is a universal architectural tension/compression form whether inside a sturgeons balancing structure, inside the Lagena accelerometer or the grey Lagena apatite crystals polyhedron shape on the lunar surface, gravity is at the core of the observation for the shape sensing.

LAGENA Tafel_081_300

The shape is based on the principle arrangement of molecules defined under the mathematics of a floating tension/compression design first played with by a human in 1948, by Kenneth Snelson. The tensegrity, defined as tensional integrity by Buckminister Fuller who coined the phrase from Snelson’s revelation was the beginning of the description of Nature’s way of assembling shape into forming this coherence of design capable of sensing itself.

This tiny apatite shape defines the essence that shape itself is at the core of the capacity of Nature to create to sustain life in all its varied forms throughout the universe but especially on Earth which is our only perspective so far. The beginning to understand any concussion be it within the balance apparatus of a sturgeon fish or a human brain is to contemplate the essence of design that determines where the fish head points where the human head faces forward resolving how that very elegant coordinate X-Y-X position sensing within the field of gravity gets altered following a concussive blow. The brain senses itself based on a shape, on a floating compression/tension design found throughout the universe. To understand the beginning of how a concussion behaves is to study first the shape of the sensing of gravity that gets altered as the concussion happens in the first millisecond of change, then to follow the cascade of events that follows. It is learning this perspective that is the most difficult to grasp at first.

HEAD Traumatic-Brain-Injury

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Anti-balance

BALANCE 2013-10-08-DearMissClinebyDavidDeSilva4-thumbWhere does a concussion begin ? The change occurs within the balance of sensing that tenuous link with gravity, where up and down are both present. Yet mysteriously the sense of balance is off when standing easily atop a gym ball disappears regressing as if hurled back into childhood scurrying on hands and knees over the floor.

Balance is something gyroscopic something mechanical as if the spin of a helicopter blade tilts the entire horizon away as a lost reference reflex.

HELICOPTER-RESCUES-DEER-facebook

So where does this sensation of balance go ? What happens inside the brain to distort the sense of orientation of what we mean by facing forward?

What happens if a bird flies into an unseen glass surface ? The bird lies on its side stunned from the impact. This immobility is at the heart of the recovery in the wild. Everything is spinning inside flight is no longer a seeking of life. Motionless the bird waits for the horizon to return as if the balance bubble of air inside was pointing in the worst direction of choice. The bird is now vulnerable to the reach of any seeing predator. The risk is now enormous for the very survival of repair.

bird crossing-a-rainbow-c2a9-2011-christopher-martin-3622Always in this observation is the presence of gravity determining the orientation be it walking over a surface or gliding across the winds in the rainbow. How might Nature tell each and every creature where is the up where is the down?

Do fish also share this vulnerability to direction after a concussive blow into their sensing systems?
FISH EYE 600x285px-LL-7235d6e8_DSC04435woodsmelt2Each concussed fisheye scans the immediate neighborhood for the sign of orientation for the sparkling surface of interface that has always been above. The energy of concussion transformed from impact energy into sound based conductive energy. The affect is the same: the fish lies still, unable to navigate, vulnerable to the always present predators circling not concussed.

FISH sideways Titan-trigger-attacksThe effect is always in reference to how gravity is sensed when a concussion causes the failure of the internal gyro that will stabilize the head. The head of the bird the head of the fish the human head. Suddenly after a concussion as an impact of energy either in the form of distortion sound waves or impacting into surfaces that are transparent. The destructive energy is transformed into the sense of balance distorting the very position the very sense of which way to go next. The loss of sense of balance determines the rate of repair within the entire brain. Seeing just positioning of the eyes becomes flawed as each component of the pivoting of eye positioning no longer links smoothly.

SOLDIER imageAt the blast form the vulnerable soldier is impacted with pressure in the form of a percussion wave that jars the very symmetry of the brain into a turning in on itself. The soldiers eyes gaze outward at the flipping horizon over and over, the inner voice screaming, ” when does this spinning go away?”

Connecting the lines Nature depends on the position of sensing the horizon this primal orientation that stakes each creature capable to move about elegantly, effortlessly in 3 dimensions land-water-air.

FISH effect_path2

The reflex of positioning has always been present, we just need to lose this reflex to understand its real importance. The reflex to orient within the gravity field telling the inner gyro of all creatures where is the up-down orientation is within the elaborate sequence of muscle contractions that involve a yawn motion. Did you ever wonder what happens to the yawn sequence for an astronaut? This is the opposite of gravity sensing, this is the anti-gravity of sensing but what happens to the yawn for a tired astronaut? Does it change in character? Yes it does !

astronaut APPOLO on side i8-14cEach yawn starts with one specific pattern, each yawn draws the breath in with a deep motion of muscle contractions, specifically the chest intercostals with the diaphragm plus with some abdominal contractions too. Yet the very first night of physiological accommodation into each first night of sleep, did NASA ever actually measure the rate of yawning of the astronaut ? Comparing the before to after space flight? No they never did, but they did measure the character of the inspiration muscles that significantly changed that first night experiences, adapting into microgravity. The character of the inspirations for breathing changed from intercostal/chest and diaphragm becoming more abdominal contractions. The measurements were mathematically significant. What NASA missed despite the intense surveillance was that the astronaut reduced or stopped yawning, which is in their data.

GRAVITY CAT ASTRONAUT ku-xlarge

Take away gravity and the yawning reflex is affected, the righting reflex doesn’t work.

The astronauts also suffer loss of balance in space,  everything can start spinning especially seeing another astronaut within their  immediate surroundings upside down compared to the view outside the window of Earth right side up. It’s as if the astronaut is mimicking a brain concussion, lying on his side, stunned. Waiting to get better. Waiting to get his balance back.

Expedition 27 Launch Day

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Why things don’t fall down: anti-tensegrity

reflections 426802163_1280

Light bends inside a gravity field. Does shape bend inside a gravity field in a similar response? What is shape ? The critical question to ask is: what happens to the brain shape after a brain concussion ? The answer is more difficult than it appears to be. First reference frame is inside the brain case, the very elastic nature of brain tissue capable of deforming. But what of other tissues, coherent tissue shapes, aren’t they involved too, since all shape sensing networks are inter-connected? What happens to the control of tensegrity of shape after a brain concussion? Is there such a thing as anti-tensegrity in terms of loss of shape stability, what I have termed tensegrity as Snelson floating compression/tension networks? Can we see shape change in lung tissue after a brain concussion? If an astronaut venturing into space begins to experience prolonged micro-gravity mimics a brain concussion event sensed first within the vestibular system, what shape changes inside the saccule/utricle might be altered ? Does the astronaut experience anti-tensegrity as a vestibular reaction within micro-gravity inside his brain shape, is this observational perspective appropriate to describe space flight mimicking a strong concussion ?

Dew on a spider web by Luc Viatour

Dew on a spider web by Luc Viatour

The tiny orbs of dew cling onto the tension determined web. These linked suspensions cling within a field of balanced tension that is oriented with a gravity field. Notice how all of the reflections show a sun in reflection at the bottom right of each droplet? We recognize the up compared to the down. We recognize the shape of space as if we had imposed a coordinate system into the reference frame. Which forces the query: does Nature impose a necessary coordinate reference frame, how many dimensions should the observer create to describe the event?

X Y Z COORDINATE SPACE F2.large

The concept of floating tension started in 1948 by Kenneth Snelson. Despite Nature having utilized the design inside cells for over hundreds and hundreds of millions of years, as a spider web is a particular form of floating Snelson tension/compression balance. We are familiar to our bodies acting in motion, but do our cells need a reference template of coordinate space to function with ? Is it possible that a reference frame is constructed to be used as if a matrix space was necessary? How might you calibrate your X-Y-Z space with Nature’s space ? Perhaps gravity itself is the shape of relevance to determine function.

butterfly pelvis 6a00e39335dc1e8834011168cca997970c-800wi

The relevance to shape is found throughout Nature, making the pelvis bone girdle comparable to the overall shape characteristics of a butterfly wing structure. One shape substance is flight capable, one shape is ground mobility functional. Both shapes are Snelson-like floating tension/compression designs that are suitable to solve two gravity based events for creating motion, for flight or walking over a surface. Snelson himself describes the elemental comparison of matching butterfly wings within the simple triangulation of pairs of triangles balanced in formation of function.

Type 1:Tension/compression triangle 
Working much like a sling used by riggers for hoisting, triangles of type 1 are formed with two struts and two tendons. The two tension lines run from the end of one strut to the two ends of a second strut. Type 1 triangles always occur in pairs like butterfly wings.

Triangles occurring in opposing pairs assures symmetry with a left and right version. The specific difference is that opposing struts can not be substituted with the cables. This is where anti-tensegrity begins to reveal itself as the structure deforms into lost stability throughout this substituted structure, the tension is lost, the shape is lost. So to begin to understand shape we have to explore some of the new language that mathematicians are employing to describe Snelson’s floating compression/tension in balance.

The following is a mathematical model for figures related to the tensegrity icosahedron, which explains why the tensegrity icosahedron is a stable construction, albeit with infinitesimal mobility.

Consider a cube of side length 2d, centered at the origin. Place a strut of length 2l on each face of the cube, so that each strut is parallel to one edge of the face and meets the center of the face. Moreover, each strut should be parallel to the strut on the opposite face of the cube, but orthogonal to all other struts. The coordinates of one vertex of the struts are (0,d,l), the coordinates of the other vertices can be obtained by either cyclicly rotating the coordinates (0,d,l)→(d,l,0)→(l,0,d) (rotational symmetry in the main diagonal of the cube) or by changing the sign of the coordinates (0,d,l)→(0,-d,l)→(0,-d,-l)→(0,d,-l) (mirror symmetries in the coordinate planes). The distance s between two neighbouring vertices can be obtained from the following relation

s^2 = (d-l)^2 + d^2 + l^2 = 2(d-\frac 1 2 \,l)^2 + \frac 3 2 \,l^2

Now imagine, this figure is built from struts of length 2l and tendons of length s connecting neighbouring endpoints. The relation tells us, that for s > \sqrt{3 / 2}\,l there are two possible values for d: one is realized by pushing the struts together, the other by pulling them apart. For example for s=\sqrt 2 \,l the minimal figure (d=0) is a regular-octahedron and the maximal figure (d=l) is a quasi-regular cubeo-octa-hedron . When s =\frac {1} {2} (\sqrt 5 - 1) then s = 2d, so the convex hull of the maximal figure is a regular icosahedron.

In the case s = \sqrt{3/2}\,l the two extremes d=\frac 1 2 \,l coincide, therefore the figure is the stable tensegrity icosahedron.

Since the tensegrity icosahedron represents an extremal point of the above relation, it has infinitesimal mobility: a small change in the length s of the tendon (e.g. by stretching the tendons) results in a much larger change of the distance 2d of the struts.

Tensegrity_icosahedron

Here in Kenneth Snelson’s own words he describes the comparison of weaving structures to tensegrity,”

Weaving and tensegrity share the same grounding principle of alternating helical directions; of left to right; of bypasses clockwise and counterclockwise. In these figures, the column on the left shows the primary weave cells.

To their right are the equivalent basic tensegrity modules. By transposing each weave filament to become a strut (stick, tube or rod) the cells transform into arrays of two, three, four, etc. compression members. They retain their original form and helical direction.


X-module; complete triangulation


3-way prism; complete triangulation


square prism; squares are non-triangulated


pentagonal prism; pentagons are non-triangulated


hexagonal prism; hexagons are non-triangulated

Individual tension lines (strings, wires or rope) are attached to the ends of the struts as shown so that each assembly comprises a closed system of tension and compression parts. Each tension line connects individually to the ends of two struts; they do not thread through like strings of beads. The lines are made taut so that they bind the struts, pressing on them as a continuous tension network. The forces introduced by the tightening is permanently stored in the structure, a state known as prestressing. In tensegrity structures complete triangulation in the tension network is highly important for it decides whether the structure is firm or flaccid. Only the cross with its two struts (and four tension members) and the three-way prism among these primitive figures have total triangulation. The square, the pentagon and the hexagon do not. They can be stabilized with additional lines but the supplemental lines necessarily will be selective in directions that will distort the form.

The transformed weave cell has now become an endoskeletal structure, mammal-like in that its muscles are external to the bones. Uniquely in tensegrity, the compression struts are separated one from another; non-touching within their tension envelope. The exception is the two-strut cross unit which lacks forces in the “Z” direction needed to separate the two struts. The cross figure is the same as a common kite frame in which the two sticks press on one another at their intersection. This simple form known as an “X” module, is the preeminent key to all extended tensegrity structures.” 

Snelson has grasped the essence of shape topology becoming shape sensing within the structure. Although his shape sculptures appear static they are actually dynamic, they vibrate containing the minimum energy necessary to keep the shape stable. In the lingo of the mathematicians they describe this as: super stable. It is a state that maintains the form of shape not only in the plane but in the other dimensions of coordinate space. Snelson describes the tension envelope. In Montreal we are blessed with just such an architectural  tension envelope to contemplate the essence of a floating tension envelope.

montreal_biosphere

We are so used to the idea of an anchored structure, stability coming at the price of the weight being placed onto the Earth support so that the structure does not fall down. Yet tensegrity is not made for the necessity of the presence of gravity since only tensegrity structures can be built in space that are self-supporting. Snelson’s floating compression/tension are external in design to life on Earth, they will also originate on other planets since these structures are able to pack the most into the least volume, which appears to be an imperative of considerable importance for Nature. Now that there are billions of other planets in the universe the likelihood of having self-sensing tensegrity structures on those planets is probably not only likely but favorable.

So the characteristics of these tensegrity structures are varied yet specific. Tensegrity shape is in equilibrium, tensegrity is a super stable conformation involving the least amount of energy to maintain the positions of struts attached to cables, no stretching, no shrinking is allowed. The jump from structure to performance occurs as structures shape change which translates into the exchange of information, as a dispersal of tension. I will introduce the term: tethered information to describe this process.

Donald Ingber has elucidated this biological concept in the following manner.
SHAPE TIME BEHAVIOUR POTENTIAL SHAPE 1-s2.0-S0163638303000547-gr2

As a marble rolls around a landscape the outcome of the resolving position of the marble determines the possibility of an outcome taking place. In other words the shape of the landscape determines the acquisition of learning behaviour in the dynamics of motion across a shaped surface. What is very important is the sequence of timing of one surface feature leading into another. Lets get right back to the beginning premise. What happens to an astronaut when he returns to Earth gravity? He has to learn to walk again as if he were a child, which is also the balance shift that a severe concussion can cause. Both the astronaut and the concussed person behave as if they are drunk swaying unstable to walk a straight line. The astronaut has the different opportunity to be rehabilitated upon his return in a given protocol of NASA, but the concussed person has no such protocol. They are on their own with no guidelines to recovery.

Listen to the words of former astronaut Chris Hadfield in his latest book AN ASTRONAUT”S GUIDE TO LIFE ON EARTH.

” Back on Earth, though, gravity was suddenly pulling me down and the floor was holding me up , trapping my ear in what felt like a constant acceleration that, inexplicably, my eyes couldn’t perceive. It’s extremely nauseating, worse than the most sickening ride at the fair. My body reacted as though the symptoms were being caused by a neural poison, and urged me both to purge it and to lie down, so that I’d metabolize the poison more slowly. I took anti-nausea meds on and off for about 10 days after landing; sometimes I felt just fine, but other times, I looked and felt green. 

My stomach recovered faster than my sense of balance. At first walking was difficult, a drunk’s stagger, but as I re-adapted I got better at it (so long as I kept my eyes wide open). Still for at least the first week, I over-corrected, swinging wide on turns, bumping into things and tilting forward as though I was walking into gale-force winds. All of this meant it wasn’t safe to drive for a couple of weeks, which was fine with me, because I was profoundly, almost unbelievably, tired, like an invalid recovering from a debilitating illness. “ Sounds just like recovering from a bad concussion, doesn’t it?

So how does a baby learn to walk, how does an astronaut learn to walk again, how does a concussed brain learn to walk from a shaped sensing Snelson floating tension/compression tensegrity reference frame of observation?

Chris Hadfield had the advantage of NASA specialists, the ASCRs which stands for astronaut strength, conditioning and rehabilitation specialists to help get him back his strength, stamina and balance. But is there a sequence to learn to walk like how a baby progresses ?

Babies learn to walk in the well dynamics of the attractor landscape. I will be citing from the excellent paper entitled A dynamical systems interpretation of epigenetic landscapes for infant motor development by Karl Newell, Yeou-Teh Liu and Gottfried Mayer-Kress in Infant Bevavior & Development 26 (2003) 449-472.

“Infant motor development has often been considered in the context of Wadington’s 1957 metaphor as an epigentic landscape. ” Basically a means toward visualizing the dynamics of developmental growth and change within a biological context as a maturational process of motor acquisition development first laid down descriptively by Gesell in 1929. “Gesell viewed growth and development as a unitary process mediated by innate processes that are laid down by the genes. This position recognized the dynamic ‘field like’ processes that constrain physio-chemical systems, where ‘field like’ processes refers to those neuromuscular and biochemical processes that operate within the body’s soft tissue as a result of concentration differences, gradient, asymmetries. Gesell’s principles of motor development were based to some degree on what we would know today as ‘dynamical-like’ system properties.’ Or perhaps as dynamic tension/compression fluxing within a hierarchical tensegrity based series of interconnected networks.

The motion of the ball on the landscape, acting as if in a gravity field which will roll into wells as depths of choice on the surface of choices such as apopotosis or differentiation or other biological outcomes. ” The fore to aft dimension is time or developmental age, the horizontal axis instantiates the emergence and dissolution of particular activities that hold dynamic equilibrium, and the slopes of the landscape surface capture the rates of developmental change. The stability of the system at any given moment of developmental time is inferred from the depth of the landscape wells. In Wadington’s 1957 theoretical approach to development, the properties of the landscape formation emerged through the genetic control but the landscape metaphor for motor development can be extrapolated to include the full complement of environmental and organizational influences.”

Here is the Snelson 1948 module shape of floating tension/compression.

tensegrity X MODULE 008 (1)If you replace the cables with the struts you lose the shape stability as this shape deforms bending like a couple of attached hinges. What this reveals to us that inside the floating shape is a tension net of balanced stress equal throughout the entire configuration confirming its dynamic stability as continuous tension balanced within the struts that don’t bend. The key term is stability and equilibrium since the least amount of energy is actually used to maintain the stability of the tensed state. The entire structure is in equilibrium. When Chris Hadfield returned to gravity the entire equilibrium within all his systems was no longer present. His tensegrity web was destabilized performing anti-tensegrity which was the adapted shape positions his body learned in micro-gravity, his body developed a new equilibrium at the expense of his gravity less stability to float around the insides of the International Space Station.

So how does a baby really learn to walk?  The baby progresses from instability to stability a dynamic state change that implicitly captures preserving the first state which is lying down as the point of departure which is stable to exploring new attractive stable states at points in time. The emergence is a linked sequence from lying down into sitting then creeping becoming crawling proceeding into standing then finally walking, all elements a linked development of prone progression as an infant learns to walk.

So is this what the ASCRs accomplished with the rehabilitation of Chris Hadfield relearning how to walk getting comfortable to be able to drive again?  Yes, I believe so. But can we consider mimicking a babies developmental progression by learning stability learning equilibrium following a brain concussion, a vestibular gravity affected injury similar to an astronauts experience when returning from a five month space flight.

“A dynamical systems approach requires the system to be described in a state space a geometric space that captures the state of the system on certain dimensions at a given moment in time. Given the many degrees of freedom at many levels of analysis of the movement action system, the geometric representation of the state of the system is usually compressed into only a few dimensions or even one dimension-dimensions that are seen to capture sufficiently the order or state of the system. This leads to order parameters or collective variables to capture distinctive pattern or qualitative state of the movement system.”

“It is instructive to consider the approaches of other context domains to this frame of reference issue for attractor landscape dynamics.”

gravity_well_cartography_2_by_lordsong-d5lrxws” Landscapes have been used as metaphors to describe the behavior under the influence of potential surfaces generated by different force fields. In the original sense of a landscape the elevation determines the potential surface generated by a constant gravitational force field. More complicated landscapes have been studied in the context of curved space of general relativity, where massive bodies create indentations in an otherwise flat space visualized as an elastic membrane. Other potential surfaces are distributions of charges and their electrical force fields. In these cases the forces have a long-range and the corresponding landscapes have an only slowly decreasing slope as one moves away from the attractor center. Other force fields such as generated by nuclear forces or those found in chemical or biological systems can only have a short effective range. Their slopes within their associated landscapes quickly go to zero within a short-range.”

” More directly relevant to infant behaviour, field potentials generated by the electrical brain activity can be displayed by continuously changing landscapes. Here the elevation of the landscapes determines which neurons will fire and thereby trigger certain behaviours. Finally the potential well of a single active neuron at a given point in time can be modeled by an inverted Bell curve, indicating in the average, short range interactions. ”

The significant intuition of Waddington toward proposing a unified dynamical framework for infant motor development for epigenetic landscapes is represented by the coordinates in the landscape. The influence of a given point in the landscape onto its neighborhood is determined  by its elevation as its potential energy. States in the immediate future of the system are determined by the slope of the landscape at a given point in the sense that the system will move in the direction of the steepest descent. In the dynamical systems interpretation the ball would not build up kinetic energy or momentum, it would come to rest exactly where the slope is zero. A peak represents unstable behaviour, the lowest point in a valley within the landscape corresponds to a stable fixed point as an attractor. ”

” Just as the collection of all genes in a biological species holds the potential for an array of phenotypes, the location of attractive centers determines a set of potentially stable modes of behaviour. For a motor development landscape, it appears that factors like intention and learning as well as organismic and environmental constraints will determine which among a set of potential modes of behaviour will actually be expressed. Change in behaviour can therefore be seen as a continuous switching on of goal attractive centers and simultaneous switching off centers that are no longer the focus of the intention.”

” Gesell in 1946 emphasized prone progression in his analysis of the infant motor development sequence. He illustrated the initial posture of lying down with the subsequent emergence of chin up, crawling, creeping and standing, all in relation to the development of component action patterns of the arms and legs.”

Lets stand back at this juncture to make some comments. What Gesell appears to have intuitively grasped is our version of a built-in App that primes the baby brain to learn to explore within a coordinate dominated system within axes of direction. Do you remember my mentioning of Donald Ingber ? I didn’t show one of his landscape diagrams until I could develop the idea of the shape of a landscape toward determining actual cell fates.

Here is Ingber’s description from JCS April 15, 2003 vol. 116no. 8 1397-1408

Attractor landscape representation of cell fate determination. A hypothetical `potential landscape’ that represents the n-dimensional state space compressed into two dimensions (XY) for visualization purposes. Every position in the XY plane would correspond to a network state (e.g. expression profile of gene and protein activities). The vertical axis (Z) represents a potential function, an `energy equivalent’, representing some distance measure of a network state to the attractor state. Lowest points in the valleys correspond to attractor states that represent cell fates. Yellow arrows indicate a path that takes the cell from growth to apoptosis.”

MAP LANDSCAPE CELL FATE

The reader may be confused at the point I am trying to emphasize. What does landscape motion have to do with a baby learning to crawl ?
Remember also the descriptions from astronaut Hadfield from his first day back into gravity? Let’s examine things from a landscape inner brain, vestibular recovery. Hadfield started his recovery of motion by lying down, that’s all he wanted to do at first to stay horizontal. Moving his head or body was worse than taking amusement rides he said. Slowly he merged his behaviour back nurturing his motion acting like a baby getting used first to a surface. Then trying to get smooth on that surface until finally the coordination with arms and legs merged so that he could walk, getting into the vertical. Hadfield described as if he was standing against a strong wind, his tensegrity sensing of gravity within a coordinate system had been shut down from his lengthy stay in microgravity aboard the International Space Station. Hadfield had the luxury with the help of his ASCRs to relearn to walk like a baby except they didn’t follow the sequence the way a baby follows the sequence. NASA has somehow figured out that it takes serious rehabilitation to get an astronaut to learn to walk again in gravity that takes a few weeks. I’m not convinced they, in NASA understand Gesell’s baby sequence to mimick the motor program of the learning landscape of space-time continuum, the shape App that a  baby instinctively follows as the baby learns to walk.

“From Gesell 1946 descriptive model of the development of prone progression we build a developmental landscape of attractor dynamics based upon principles of nonlinear dynamical systems. The landscape is created for the environmental context of a land- based surface of support, such as a floor in a house. ” You need an X-Y surface to start prone progression from while lying down. Your brain needs to orient to this surface first to sense where X-Y is located.

FOOT TENSEGRITY fig_21_Tens_Foot_ConstAs Hadfield placed his unsteady foot on the flat surface that his ASCR specialists supported him nearby. Chances are he would have something to grab onto to help himself steady his body swaying around as if his body had its own motion ready to slip into the risk of breaking his now fragile bones. Hadfield’s foot contact can be represented as a tensegrity joint, as can Hadfield’s knee, his pelvis his torso, his arms, his neck, his head. Hadfield like all humans has a tensegrity bone organization that needs to orient toward the gravity vector that has oriented all mammals on Earth at the present time. Yet Hadfield is stumbling around so unsure of his next step because his body doesn’t want to do what he wants to do. Hadfield is suffering acute anti-tensegrity vestibular dysregulation that is affecting his entire autonomic system’s balance. The landscape shape of his brain networks does not match the necessary stability the smooth equilibrium that was taken for granted as he left the grasp of gravity on his flight toward the International Space Station. The inner landscape map has to be remapped by the ASCR specialists one shaky step at a time. Until he can relearn to walk again, just like a baby does with its built-in App programmed to rise like Gesell described so intuitively back in 1946 as a maturity gradient. The rehabilitation starts with the emergence of chin up, crawling, creeping and then standing, all in relation to the component action patterns of the tensegrity moving arms and legs. The same motor sequence should be used to rehabilitate a concussed brain. The end result is the proper alignment to Earth’s gravity vector for both the astronaut and the concussed person. It’s all about shape sensing.

Cmdr Chris Hadfield at the coupole aboard the ISS taking Twitter photos of Earth

Cmdr Chris Hadfield at the coupole aboard the ISS taking Twitter photos of Earth

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Space station time

ISS station_backlitIf you had told me 6 weeks ago that I would spend all my time in my house not leaving it except for a brief few trips for diagnostic trips then another coronary artery intervention in the hospitals near me. Mid September my fragile genes caught up with me to block the left anterior descending coronary artery. I was having a widow maker heart attack early while reading my early morning Saturday Montreal newspaper. No muscular effort precipitated my attack.

LAD 1477-9560-7-5-2-lWe complain about the inefficiencies about our Quebec health care system but within one hour after presenting at St-Mary’s Hospital emergency department I was on the operating table after being sent via ambulance to Montreal’s Jewish General Hospital’s Cath Lab for angioplasty. As can be seen in the images above inside the large coronary vessel labeled LAD I had a similar no-flow event, I was suffering a heart attack. It felt like a big rope had been wrapped around my chest with two people tightening it. I was also in a cold sweat during the acute moments during the start of the attack. My surgeon placed a Drug Eluding Stent inside the LAD artery to keep the vessel from collapsing on itself.

stentA stent is a delicate device that expands inside the coronary LAD to prevent it from collapsing upon itself. My father had a similar incident that became his last alive moments before he passed away way back in 1969. But at my moment during the myocardial infarct I was having a very real conversation with my father. ” Dad this is what you felt in your burning chest all those long years ago. Now we are united in sharing this moment of destiny.” My father didn’t get a stent to return flow to his heart, his heart muscle never rebounded. During the angioplasty the surgeon discovered 3 more potential blockages. Last Friday at the Royal Victoria Hospital one more stent was positioned. But the best news was that my stunned heart muscle from the first attack was now beating with only a minor motion change within the entire anterior wall. I was now on the road toward recovery.

The time in my house became reflective time.

PRISM E2EE4C26-64A4-47C0-BB47-328E104C164E_w640_r1_sI pretended I was on my own space mission during my convalescence, limited to roaming only inside my home’s interior, just like the boundaries aboard the International Space Station. But I did read. I did think a lot especially about my work, about what I am trying to accomplish. I did learn the Sir Issac Newton developed many of his insights during a prolonged convalescence in his house, especially his observations on gravity.

Chris Hadfield inside the ISS cupola manipulating the Canada Arm

Chris Hadfield inside the ISS cupola manipulating the Canada Arm

So what does a real astronaut think about while aboard the International Space Station ? What might Chris Hadfield thoughts be about gravity, since he is acutely feeling no gravity within his entire body floating about the interior of his house away from home?

Gravity has always been present during the entire saga of evolution. This ultimate orientation has been imprinted into all signaling communication cellular nets since the start of life on Earth. Gravity has always been present until these last few decades of astronauts now living and working in microgravity. So suddenly withdrawing the force of gravity what are some of the physiological changes pertinent to an astronaut might sense within his chest? Listening to my own conversations, my own simple thoughts on a stent now opening up blood flow within my own heart. What happens to normal breathing for an astronaut experiencing anti-gravity effects? Let’s examine some research reports, specifically on the first day of flight aboard the ISS.

sts111-373-001The astronauts breathing rate slows down from a pattern within his chest expansion as antigravity begins its separation as if into separate colors behaving like a prism of light separating into the blended spectrum of colors. Breathing in microgravity becomes less of chest expansion involving intercostal muscles with the diaphragm into a more predominate abdominal muscle breathing pattern. So does breathing interact with the gravity sensing vestibular system? In other words if yawning has something to do with perfecting where my body is either horizontal transitioning into vertical what happens to my breathing , anything or nothing? What kind of confirmation is out there in the literature. Surprisingly very little, but I did find some info that starts to get to the heart of the matter.

My convalescence floating in my home for the post heart attack released a flood of thoughts taking extra naps during my days watching the light move around the interior as fall slowly descended into its color shifting outside my space station. So which way does vagal nerve input from lungs influence factors like lung volume interacting with intrapulmonary pressure? On a couple of occasions returning from slumber my mind floated in the sweep of the color spectrum vistas around my space station. Why do we yawn? is a report from the SciRes  by William Burke, Vol 5, No. 10, 1572-1579 (2013) http://doi.org/10.4236/health.2013.510213
Fall-1
 Burke proposes a biomedical hypothesis, …”that the immediate trigger for a yawn is a restricted collapse of a few alveoli in the lungs.” As the author refutes the common concept that, ….”yawning can be inhibited by deep breathes of air, carbogen or nitrogen,” which refutes the common refrain that, ” a yawn is triggered by either lack of oxygen or by an excess of carbon dioxide.” This leaves according to Burke, the conclusion that, ..” alveollar collapse as the most likely possibility.”

The fractal branching of a tree is similar the internal design of our lungs.

fallOne of the key observations of Burke concerns, …” the fact that alveoli in the basal regions of the lung are more likely to collapse than those in the apical lung region.” The real measure of how our lung functions is called compliance. Lung compliance is the ratio of lung volume difference divided by the pressure difference. Lung compliance is the description of the elastic range of motion between inspiration to expiration. Lung compliance is a elastic/tension change within the shape motion of the lung tissue. Our lungs are tensegrity shape changes dynamically stretching in an elastic range of floating tension changes a la Snelson floating in a dynamic tension/compression balance.

A lung tightly held by the ribs and the horizontal septum, a lung directly attached to the trunk, specially formed and compactly arranged parabronchi, intertwined atrial muscles, and tightly set air capillaries and blood capillaries form an integrated hierarchy of discrete network system of tension and compression, a tensegrity (tensional integrity) array, which absorbs, transmits, and dissipates stress, stabilizing (strengthening) the lung and its various structural components.” Spectacularly robust! Tensegrity principle explains the mechanical strength of the avian lung. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007 Jan 15;155(1):1-10. Epub 2006 Jun 2. Maina J

Tensegrity suspension 35.1986.1##S

Our bodies internally are in a floating suspension net within a gravity field determining the direction of down versus up. The fractal dimension within our lung compliance motion is dynamic tensegrity shape sensing. All the observers in this suspension behave in their dimensional space because gravity is present. But what of antigravity? What happens inside to the astronauts lung compliance where there is no down-up or sideways?

astronaut thestreetgeddes1

What happens to a lungs tensegrity balance of tension/compression in anti gravity? The system crashes.

TENSEGRITY XYZ F7.large

According to Burke’s hypothesis, sensing this lung compliance is at the core of one of the reasons for triggering a yawn as a tensegrity shape change within the elements of the lung’s anatomy, seen as a collapse of a few alveoli in the lungs. What Burke terms,…” as a yawning is due to a mild form of atelectasis.” Atelectasis is a term from Greek meaning incomplete extension,  defined as the collapse or closure of the lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange. It may affect part or all of one lung. It is a condition where the alveoli are deflated. What is very important for the general shape diagram of a tensegrity structure above is the imposed coordinate reference line planes of X-Y-Z, which orients the shape inside a gravity coordinate space. In anti gravity space there is no specific orientation within a X-Y-Z frame work to define the direction of shape sensing within this framework. The shape sensing crashes because the tensegrity forces are different in both direction and strength. The character, the very performance of lung motion elasticity is altered.

Yawning has been medically recommended to prevent the development of atelectasis in those patients experiencing respiratory disorders especially following operations where lung collapsing is a serious complication. Hyperinflation therapy has evolved as a means to prevent or treat atelectasis. Burke is advocating that, ” a very mild form of atelectasis may be a normal feature of regular breathing. ” According to Burke, ” Shallow breathing, in turn, is due to a marked relaxation of the whole body in various states or conditions such as tiredness, boredom, sleepiness, loss of attention, fatigue, hunger, malaise and most surprisingly, observing other people yawning, which is contagious yawning.” In other words in any dramatic state of body tenseness such as paratrooper just about to jump out of an aircraft or a musician about to perform before a large audience, shallow tense breathing (rigid tensegrity shape sensing) reduces lung compliance creating shallow breathing which may lead to mild alveolar collapse, triggering a yawn.

Tensegrity 6_strut_with_springs

Burke also compared on himself the effects of body position for yawning as he awoke testing the hypothesis that posture effects the degree of alveolar collapse, increasing the chance of alveolar collapse to occur when the body/chest orientation is vertical compared to the body/chest being horizontal, i.e. lying down. ” It is well known when the body is horizontal the lungs experience the same intrapleural pressure at all anatomic regions. But when the chest is oriented in the vertical plane parallel to the Z axis, the gravitational effect increases the intrapleural pressure in the basal regions relative to the apex. ” Yet according to Burke little or no yawns were experienced in the horizontal awaking position compared to an average of 3 yawns in the same measurement time following 15 minutes after awakening when moving around walking with his body/chest parallel to the vertical Z axis. ” It is uncertain what signal might come from the collapsed alveoli to initiate the yawn,” Burke assumed that the signalling is within the vagus nerve with the possibility that the relevant nerves may be those originating from the J-receptors.

Burke speculates with, “Nevertheless in the absence of lung disorders, gravity may provide the simplest explanation for the postural effect toward inducing a shallow effect on  alveolar collapse,” as the difference to trigger a yawn. ”

lungs.2

However, recent studies in normal conscious humans demonstrate that going from a deflating state of lung motion to an inflation state is accomplished mainly by the recruitment of alveoli. The number of alveoli increases, while the volume size of the alveoli remains relatively unchanged. If this (elastic shape change of balanced tension/compression a la Snelson) is correct, we can rephrase the ‘alveollar collapse’ as ‘closed alveoli’.’  Burkes final consideration states, ” It is not known how the ‘closed alveoli’ become open but this might be a function of surfactant. If (lung elastic motion) inflation (as a shape change event of elastic tensegrity tension/compression) caused secretion of surfactant at the mouth of a closed alveolus this might cause it to open.”

I might surmise that since the dynamic triggering of recruitment is the likelihood of  a grouped alveolar collapse within the basal regions as a gravity based motion elastic reconfiguration the state of alveoli changing from closed to open by inspiration as a yawn induced lung inflation is essentially a tensegrity triggering shape changed yawn. Let me simplify this summation. As an astronaut ventures into antigravity space flight he stops yawning as a consequence, since their is no X-Y-Z tensegrity 3-dimension space, only antigravity space.

HADFIELD EARTH 3Gduepif0T1UGY8H4xMDoxOjA4MTsiGN

So as I wander my home as an imagined space station in my convalesce I contemplate the amazing prospect that a simple yawn is a complex motion triggering within the micro space of our lung acting as a tensegrity trigger to gravity that is so present around me within the space time continuum what I call the yawn GST reflex.

 
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Dalmatian Pelican eye concussion

EYE 1704dalmatian_pelicanThe shock of impact was felt into the neck of the majestic bird. Diving into the glint of ocean waves toward the speckle of a school of fish the gravity descending bird did not perceive the hidden log just below the surface. The collision was dampened by the surrounding water, the bird used to the shock of hitting the interface but this time was different, the bird was dazed. Somehow swimming up into the bursting light at the junction of water with air the bird gasped to flounder in confusion. Everything was spinning.

What happens to the eyes during a concussion as the brain moves ? The eyes move.  But behave as tethered objects held in their sockets strained by the muscles that permit their rotation, their gazing up or down, their sweep side to side. The eyes acting as tiny orbs stretched into tension whiplash like the release of a slingshot ball snapping in on their trajectory at the moment of impact. The energy is translated not only into their surrounding socket structures but further into the bone tunnel connecting their very attached nerves within the brain stem. It is not as if the bird loses sight but worse the bird suffers brightness overwhelming the diaphragm of the iris but especially the pivoting skill of eye rotation, the up and down eye positioning that had been so smooth before.

Wave 2758525829_b50226cd90_o

Jamshid Ghajar, MD, PhD , chief of Neurosurgery at Jamaica Hospital-Cornell Trauma Center, clinical professor of Neurosurgery at Weill Cornell Medical College and President of the Brain Trauma Foundation in New York City is developing just such a specific www.cerebrovortex.com observation toward developing eye tracking as a means to diagnose brain concussion. According to Dr. Ghajar, ” There are also no methods to accurately measure attention continuously. Brain concussion (minor traumatic brain injury, mTBI ) patients may experience subtle but frequent lapses in attention that are not detected by any assessments with low temporal resolution. Therefore, the development of a rapid yet sensitive plus reliable test is necessary in order to detect, to grade subtle cognitive impairments due to injury. Can we generate accurate diagnoses for mTBI patients using faulty eye positioning? The Cognitive and Neurobiological Research Consortium investigated chronic mild TBI in civilians and provided anatomical quantification of the degree of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) using MRI-diffusion tensor imaging. Based on this anatomical quantification, we aimed to determine whether performance variability during visual tracking can provide a useful screening measure for mTBI. We also aim to develop a diagnostic protocol of attention metric for mTBI.” 

Undiagnosed and untreated mTBI has become a significant problem for men and women serving in Iraq, and the Department of Defense expressed an early interest and funding in the eye tracking project.  In September 2008 the DoD awarded BTF a four-year grant $4.6 million grant to develop a portable eye tracking device that can be used on service men and women in the field to instantly determine if they have suffered any brain damage as a result of blast injury or another type of head injury.  The researchers at BTF have been working with engineers and researchers at the United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine to develop this device that will revolutionize the way mTBI is diagnosed and help insure that service men and women with brain injury get the care that they need and are not sent back into the field where they could potentially be in harm’s way.”

PELICAN comp_arbeit--Alexander_Fischer_krauskopfpelikan

Where inside the human anatomy of the head do the eyes behave as if tethered objects stretched by the rebound of shock happening with brain concussive deceleration forces? Let’s examine some anatomy maps.

OCCULOMOTOR cn3_7b

The cranial nerves supplying the dalmatian pelican’s eye involve: Cranial nerves III, IV and VI. In the diagram above is cranial nerve, CN III(3), the occulomotor nerve.

eye_movements1359393912968The cranial nerve CN VI (6) , the abducens, enters the brain stem at the junction of the foramen magnum, in the diagram below the red line from the cross section view showing the midbrain, pons and medulla zones within the brain stem. The cranial nerve CN IV, the trochlear controls both lateral rectus muscles.
Cranial Nerves NucleiAcute vulnerability enters at the foramen magnum during a concussive force since the energy is strained into the longest tethered segment of cranial nerve, the abducens nerve, CN VI. In the above diagram the cranial nerves are listed as numerics. Pay attention to the vulnerable insertion zones into the upper brain stem of cranial nerves 3, CN III occulomotor, cranial nerve 4, CN IV trochlear and cranial nerve 6, CN VI, abducens respectively.

EYE 56902-0550x0475

The pelican doesn’t understand the shock to its eyes. It swings its head positioning while immobile as the unstable response to this violent contact stirs the visual field into swirls of colour. The bird is dizzy, mesmerized by false balance sensation. The far horizon line is actually looping as if inverted motion gyros overhead. The bird thrusts its head into the waves splashing into the coldness. The bird fails to perceive the form beneath the waves, which engulfs the spinning spectacle of its twisting visual field into fury then only darkness.

great-white-circles

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Octopus concussions

OCTOPUS coconut octopus 9.2560-1600

The octopus brain is evolutionarily different to mammalian brain by not being surrounded by a bony case. So can an octopus have a brain concussion ? Lets investigate.

If we define a concussion as the rapid deceleration in a gravity field distorting a brain into tension changes during rapid elastic distortions dependent on the shape characteristics, what of an entirely soft body, especially also within the head structure? But where does the excess energy go, which structures are really vulnerable ?

octopus flickr-3658339290-hd

Each arm of the octopus is independent without the requirement of a central brain to coordinate its delicate motions. Large octopus in captivity when threatened by a shark are not only able to subdue the shark but to actually wrap up the shark like holding a FedEx package, so that the shark suffocates by not being able to push water through its gills. So how do we define intelligence in such a creature? How did Nature solve this problem ? Are octopus immune to deceleration trauma to their self sensing? Do octopus have a sense of humour?

octopus_desktop_1024x768_wallpaper-436437

Octopuses have a pouch-shaped body and eight powerful arms (not tentacles), usually with two rows of suction discs on each. They don’t have any bones, but in some cases, the brain may be enclosed in cartilage. Their size can range from 1.5 cm (0.6 in.) to more than 5 m (16 ft.); spans of up to 9 m (30 ft.) have been recorded, although these measurements are often considered questionable. The arms usually make up about half their span.

Their skin has amazing abilities. Octopuses can change their colour to match the background and thus provide camouflage. They can change the colour pattern in order to communicate with other octopuses. They can also change the texture of the skin’s surface to further help them blend with their surroundings. They inhabit many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs.

Octopuses also have a sac that contains an inky substance. When an octopus senses danger, it ejects some “ink”. The ink darkens the water, thereby screening the octopus from the other animal. In some species, the saliva—deployed by a beak bite—can also paralyse prey.

Octopuses can travel through water by jet propulsion: they take in water and forcibly eject it through a funnel, using the contraction of their muscular mantle (the layer of tissue that encloses the body). They usually use this method only when trying to escape from danger or when catching prey. They are also able to creep over hard surfaces using their arms, and indeed, this is how most octopuses move around most of the time.

Octopuses are classified as molluscs. They are closely related to squids, cuttlefish and nautiloid. Other molluscs such as snails, mussels and clams are slightly more-distant relatives. There are around 300 recognized species; octopuses are found in all the oceans.”

When hunting and grabbing dinner, the octopus uses all the flexibility the arms are capable of. But to bring captured prey to its mouth, the octopus turns the arm into a semi-rigid structure that bends to form quasi joints. Just as a human arm has joints at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist that allow our arms to bend and rotate, the octopus bends its arm to forming three segments of roughly equal length. The motions of each arm are run by a complex system of about 50 million neurons that encodes the movements necessary for making coordinated movements. The octopus has the most complicated brain of all the invertebrates. The octopus brain is estimated to have 300,000,000 neurons. These neurons are arranged in lobes and tracts that are more specialized than ganglia. An octopus has the most advanced memory of the invertebrates plus is a rapid learner.

Understanding how the octopus controls eight flexible arms all at once could be the basis for developing the next generation of flexible robotic arms—long a goal among robotics engineers.

“Our specific aim in this project is to learn from nature how to build and control a flexible-arm robot,” said Binyamin Hochner, a biologist at Hebrew University in Jerusalem and one of the co-authors of the study. “And indeed our studies show how the octopus simplifies the complex problems associated with controlling flexible arms that have an infinitely large number of degrees of freedom. This in turn inspires the development of new strategies for the control of flexible robotic arms.”

“With more than a 250 species, octopuses are members of an ancient group of animals called cephalopods. The giant Pacific octopus (Octopus dofleini) can grow to over 20 feet (6 meters) and weigh more than 100 pounds (45 kilograms). The tiny Californian octopus (Octopus micropyrsus), by contrast, is no more than half an inch to an inch (1.3 to 2.5 centimeters) long.”

“There have been numerous accounts of (and searches for) an as yet unknown species of deep-sea octopus that is believed to grow to over 100 feet (30 meters) across and weigh several tons.

Octopuses have intrigued scientists for years, because they have both long- and short-term memory. They remember solutions to problems.  They can go on to solve the same or similar problems. They have been known to climb aboard fishing boats then open holds in search of crabs. They can figure out mazes, open jars, even to break out of their aquariums in search of food.

The arms are composed almost entirely of muscle, with no bone or external skeleton—a structure known as a muscular hydrostat. Elephant trunks and tongues are other examples of a muscular hydrostat.

Earlier research funded by the U.S. Navy’s Office of Naval Research (ONR) suggests that, to keep the arms from constantly tangling themselves up, each arm has an independent peripheral nervous system and neural circuitry (see related-story link below). This allows the brain to essentially give a command—”Arm Four, fetch that tasty crab crawling by”—and have the arm carry out the order without the brain thinking about it again.

This ability is combined with excellent eyesight. Once an octopus spots its prey, it has a remarkable ability to reach out with one of its arms and grab it with one of the suckers that form a double line up each of the octopus’s arms.” The eye of the octopus is very similar to that of vertebrates in that it has a cornea, lens, iris and retina. It can also focus and form images. The vertebrate eye focuses by changing the shape of the lens. Octopi can see shape, color intensity, and texture.

Octopus-suckers Desktop-Wallpapers

“The clever creature is a brown octopus about two feet (60 centimeters) long that slithers along the muddy bottom of shallow, tropical estuaries where rivers spill into the sea. It was discovered so recently that it still doesn’t have a scientific name, but scientists are intrigued by its uncanny ability to impersonate lion fish, soles, and banded sea snakes.”

Octopuses are thought to be one of the most intelligent invertebrates and can change the color and texture of their skin to blend in with rocks, algae, or coral to avoid predators. But until now, an octopus with the ability to actually assume the appearance of another animal had never been observed.

“Having studied many octopus species in the wild, I am never surprised by the color and shape change capacities of these animals,” said Mark Norman of the Melbourne Museum in Australia. “However, this animal stood out as it was the only one we’ve encountered that goes beyond camouflage to take on the guise of dangerous animals.”

Norman and fellow researchers Julian Finn of the University of Tasmania in Australia and Tom Tregenza of the University of Leeds in England describe the octopus mimic in the September 7 issue of Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.

“This,” Tregenza said, “is a rather dramatic animal.”

Mimicry is a fairly common survival strategy in nature. Certain flies, for example, assume the black and yellow stripes of bees as a warning to potential predators. But the adaptable octopus is the first known species that can assume multiple guises.

Each of the nine specimens that scientists saw during research dives off the coasts of Sulawesi and Bali in Indonesia impersonated more than one toxic species. The creatures they routinely mimicked were:

• Sole fish. To take on the appearance of flat and poisonous sole fish abundant in the habitat, the octopus builds up speed through jet propulsion and draws all of its arms together to form a leaf-shaped wedge. It then undulates in the manner of a swimming flat fish.

• Lion fish. Just above the seafloor the octopus swims with its arms spread wide and trailing from its body, mimicking the lion fish and its poisonous fins.

• Sea snakes. Changing its color to imitate the yellow and black bands of the toxic sea snake, the octopus threads six of its arms into a hole and waves the other two arms in opposite directions so they look like two snakes.

One reason why the researchers had not discovered the octopus previously is that it lives in a habitat that’s not very appealing to scuba divers—a muddy and relatively barren landscape that lacks the variety and splendor of life found in coral reefs.

“We also think that is why it has such a dramatic [mimicking ability],” said Tregenza. “It has nowhere to hide. It could burrow, or try and mimic one of the animals also found in their environment.”

“These boring environments are just the place where you might see the most exciting behavior of animals,” he added.

The researchers believe the recently discovered octopus uses its mimicry to avoid predation by large fish rather than as a mechanism to trick its prey. They also think it probably evolved from another species of octopus that’s active during the day in coral reefs nearby.

“It may have moved to open ground to harness the many crustaceans and fish found in these habitats,” said Norman. “Individuals which looked like dangerous animals were clearly selected for, while others were quickly nailed by passing barracuda, sharks, or groupers. Hence, mimicry was selected for.”

The fact that the octopus can adopt so many different animal impersonations greatly reduces its likelihood of encountering predators. This is advantageous, said Tregenza, because if a predator fish often saw a lion fish that looked suspiciously like an octopus, the predator would eventually be more willing to risk being poisoned by taking a bite of its prey—thus blowing the octopus’s cover.

Tregenza said the octopus may decide which creature to impersonate depending on what particular predator is near. Evidence of such behavior came from observations showing that when the octopus was attacked by territorial damselfishes, it mimicked one of the fishes’ common predators, the banded sea snake.

“If the mimic octopus can figuratively use its mimicry—that is, can choose to use a particular form in response to a particular threat—this could potentially dramatically improve the defensive value of its mimicry behavior,” said Tregenza.

We have suspected based on the large amount of nerves in the octopuses and from the behavior of severed arms during predation,” said James Wood of the National Center for Cephalopods at the University of Texas in Galveston.

“Arms have a lot of autonomy and the central brain of an octopus gives high-level commands but may not be aware of the details—in other words, there is a lot of processing of information in the arms that never makes it to the brain,” he added.

This research shows the mechanism by which octopuses are able to operate an arm that has a nearly infinite range of motion. This has been a long-term goal of the Israeli researchers not only because of their interest in nature, but also to learn how to produce a flexible and robust robotic arm.

“A flexible [robot] arm would not be constricted by the environment. It would be a better robot for unpredicted situations such as a natural disaster or surgery in a delicate area,” said Hochner. “It would have infinitely large degrees of freedom which are not constrained by the fixed joints of other robots that are currently used.”

Now that the researchers have figured out how octopuses control their flexible arms, the next challenge is to find a material that can replicate the property of an octopus arm. Currently nothing comes close, said Hochner.

In the meantime, scientists will remain awed by the intelligence of octopuses, which are thought to be the most intelligent of the invertebrates (species that have no spine).

“This [research] shows that centralized processing of all incoming information is not the only way to develop a neural network,” said Wood.

With their jet propulsion there is always the risk of a collision into something. But being invertebrates the brain is not inside a bone vault. Enormous brain flexibility allows them to squeeze virtually bounded by the limits of the dimension of their beak. In terms of collision risk their ability to deform is a superb strategy toward deflecting any deceleration energy during any brief impact. Their cloaking ability to either mimic other fish is probably one of the best cloaking skill sets of any creature on the planet. They have evolved a superior intelligence capable of eluding the various predators that share their range of activities. They are both strong yet flexible with no bones to break. But they are still vulnerable.

OCTOPUS brain Young Figure 1-6

Can a octopus endure a concussion ? What is the first response inside the brain as the concussion deceleration hits? It is the instantaneous movement sensed within the vestibular system in this case within the statocyst. Where the destructive energy comes into play is from sound waves as vibrations rather than collision energy. This man made sound energy that eventually concusses the octopus brain as an impacting energy cascade starting within the gravity sensor of the animals position, within their statocyst.

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Giant squid, for example, were found along the shores of Asturias, Spain in 2001 and 2003 following the use of airguns by offshore vessels and examinations eliminated all known causes of lesions in these species, suggesting that the squid deaths could be related to excessive sound exposure.

Michel André, Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona, and colleagues examined the effects of low frequency sound exposure — similar to what the giant squid would have experienced in Asturias — in four cephalopod species. As reported in an article published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, a journal of the Ecological Society of America, all of the exposed squid, octopus and cuttlefish exhibited massive acoustic trauma in the form of severe lesions in their auditory structures.

The researchers exposed 87 individual cephalopods — specifically, Loligo vulgaris, Sepia officinalis, Octopus vulgarisand Illex coindeti — to short sweeps of relatively low intensity, low frequency sound between 50 and 400 Hertz (Hz) and examined their statocysts. Statocysts are fluid-filled, balloon-like structures that help these invertebrates maintain balance and position — similar to the vestibular system of mammals. The scientists’ results confirmed that statocysts indeed play a role in perceiving low frequency sound in cephalopods.

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André and colleagues also found that, immediately following exposure to low frequency sound, the cephalopods showed hair cell damage within the statocysts. Over time, nerve fibers became swollen and, eventually, large holes appeared — these lesions became gradually more pronounced in individuals that were examined several hours after exposure. In other words, damage to the cephalopods’ auditory systems emerged immediately following exposure to short, low intensity sweeps of low frequency sound. All of the individuals exposed to the sound showed evidence of acoustic trauma, compared with unexposed individuals that did not show any damage.

“It is clear that the crista, by the arrangement of the cilia, of its hair cells  and by its configuration in three planes, is a receptor of angular acceleration . The macula is important in the maintenance of a fixed orientation by the animal, a fact that is of
particular importance in visual learning.” (from the article, Zeitschrift fiir Zellforschung 70, 91–107 (1966) THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE STATOCYST  OF OCTOPUS VULGARIS  by V. C. BARBER* Anatomy Department University College London)

“If the relatively low intensity, short exposure used in our study can cause such severe acoustic trauma, then the impact of continuous, high intensity noise pollution in the oceans could be considerable,” said André. “For example, we can predict that, since the statocyst is responsible for balance and spatial orientation, noise-induced damage to this structure would likely affect the cephalopod’s ability to hunt, evade predators and even reproduce; in other words, this would not be compatible with life.”

The effect of noise pollution on marine life varies according to the proximity of the animal to the activity and the intensity and frequency of the sound. However, with the increase in offshore drilling, cargo ship transportation, excavation and other large-scale, offshore activities, it is becoming more likely that these activities will overlap with migratory routes and areas frequented by marine life.

“We know that noise pollution in the oceans has a significant impact on dolphins and whales because of the vital use of acoustic information of these species,” said André, “but this is the first study indicating a severe impact on invertebrates, an extended group of marine species that are not known to rely on sound for living. It left us with several questions: Is noise pollution capable of impacting the entire web of ocean life? What other effects is noise having on marine life, beyond damage to auditory reception systems? And just how widespread and invasive is sound pollution in the marine environment?”

What happens then to an octopus orienting to man-made low-frequency sound ? The response of orientation is a vestibular reaction within the octopus repertoire of dedicated fine motion. The destruction of fine hair cells dedicated to hearing is the beginning of a cascade of injury that starts with excessive sound waves as the input that deregulate the statocyst vestibular system, literally unbalancing the octopus capacity to defend itself using all its camouflage altering tricks. The response from an octopus having a concussion resolves not into a abrupt collision with an object but rather a collision with sound sensed first within the hearing apparatus which is intimately linked within statocyst head positioning as gravity sensing.

The apparatus of vulnerability within the octopus is its statocyst affected oil rig 118806528_NorthSea_368048cpositioning ability that can become injured. Octopus concussions occur as vestibular injuries that impact the very survival skills of these very intelligent creatures. What is to be learned from these elegant creatures is their exquisite sensitivity as a vulnerability of their gravity sensing statocyst. The statocyst itself is a biomineralized, structure the only hard substance in such a mobile elastic body. What Nature appears to be revealing is to comprehend how energy in the form of vibration, in the form of disturbing orientation within gravity orientation involves sensing gravity inside a hard substance affects directly the octopus ability to move – to perform its elaborate camouflaging skills. Once the octopus sensing of gravity is injured the octopus is at great risk to be attacked by the surrounding presence of predators.

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Müller vesicles: detecting up from down

Every single life form can detect the presence of the gravity vector. Gravity has asserted itself into this constancy by its presence since life evolved on our Planet Earth. If you want to understand how a gravity accident, like a brain concussion happens, you have to begin to comprehend how Nature first started sensing gravity direction in one the oldest of its creatures, the ciliates, over one billion years old. Our brain sits on the hierarchy of such ancient creatures.

CITY chuenokirpm12002As we gaze skywards into an imaginary city of skyscrapers we see in the scale of our perception the rising definition of buildings anchored against gravity. The soaring spectacle spins overhead into dizzying heights we marvel at the reach of height. Yet if we were to look into life’s smaller cells even into the murky bottom of a puddle at the base of such imaginary skyscrapers we would see the relevance of gravity applying its vector of direction down even at the lowly scale of such minute life forms. The first sensing apparatus evolved around the vector of gravity, all subsequent brain power focused into that sense of where the real down is toward interpreting this direction.

This years Nobel Prize in Medicine concerns the work of discovering the importance of vesicles inside cells. The joint 2013 winners are: James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof. The citation form the Nobel web site reads as follows, “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic,
a major transport system in our cells.”

” Each cell is a factory that produces and exports molecules. For instance, insulin is manufactured and released into the blood and chemical signals called neurotransmitters are sent from one nerve cell to another. These molecules are transported around the cell in small packages called vesicles. The three Nobel Laureates have discovered the molecular principles that govern how this cargo is delivered to the right place at the right time in the cell.”

“Randy Schekman discovered a set of genes that were required for vesicle traffic. James Rothman  unravelled protein machinery that allows vesicles to fuse with their targets to permit transfer of cargo. Thomas Südhof revealed how signals instruct vesicles to release their cargo with precision.”

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“Through their discoveries, Rothman, Schekman and Südhof have revealed the exquisitely precise control system for the transport and delivery of cellular cargo. Disturbances in this system have deleterious effects and contribute to conditions such as neurological diseases, diabetes, and immunological disorders.”

Within each cell is a GPS of orientation that permits all this exquisite trafficking to become functional at delivery at the right time at the right place in a gravity coordinated apparatus. But to see all of gravity’s influence it is best to appreciate its detection at the simplest, tiniest aspect, where else but in a shimmering slime puddle at the base of a sky piercing tower. Micro creatures lurk beneath the surface each with vesicles, acting as micro bubbles within cells tempers their delivery motions with the buoyancy path of their progress acting within a gravity field of one, which is our Earth field.

NATURAL TEXTURES © 1998 PhotoSpin www.powerphotos.comBut how does a cell sense gravity? Does it just happen that in seeking to get away from bright light into the tension gradient of oxygen at the bottom of such a puddle what happens to the motion of the cell to discriminate the descent into the favoured oxygen tension level by swimming downward?

protozoansA Abundant varieties of shapes on unicellular life are like children’s scribbles, yet they all behave to the hidden vector of a constant gravity presence, every single one of the thousands of protozoa found in our little puddle on the ground.

To better understand gravity effects on puddle dwelling ciliates I will be referring to a paper entitled: The Structure and Function of Muller Vesicles in Loxodid Ciliates by Tom Fenchel and Bland J. Finlay from the Journal of Protozoology, Vol. 33, No. 1, February 1986, 69-76.

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The authors employ the term, geotaxis, to describe the sensing of gravity.

“Recently, we have  shown experimentally that the ability of these ciliates to orient
themselves in oxygen gradients depends on a true geotaxis. Under anaerobic conditions the ciliates tend to swim upwards, but if the oxygen, tension exceeds about 10% atmospheric saturation, they will swim downwards. Around 5% atmospheric saturation,
vertical drift (and random motility) takes minimum values and  the cells therefore congregate in this region. Cells in anoxic water swimming upwards will, if turned 180 degrees, immediately start to tumble and manage to bring their anterior end to point upwards again after about 40 seconds. Conversely, if a cell swimming downwards is turned 180 degrees, it will be able to turn and resume downwards swimming within 20-30 sec.”
“Loxodid ciliates must therefore possess a mechanoreceptor which tells them what is up and what is down. A likely candidate is the Müller vesicle, a peculiar organelle characteristic of loxodid ciliates. Superficial observations with the light microscope
reveal these organelles (numbering one to about 30 according to species) as vacuoles containing a mineral concretion (the Müller body).”

“They are situated on the left side of the cells, close to the dorsal rim. Penard noted that the concretion  is attached to the wall of the vacuole via a thin stalk and he suggested that the organelle functions as a statocyst.”

STATOCYST liriope-tetraphylla

STATOCYST liriope-tetraphylla

“More recently, a brief note and a more thorough study indicated a rather complex structure of the Muller vesicle, involving an invaginated cilium and other fibrillar structures. The invaginated cilium, the tip of which protrudes to the cell surface, has also been reported in a recent SEM study on Loxodes . Finally, it has been shown that the Muller bodies of Laxodes contain barium and those of Remanella brunnea, strontium; they are likely to consist of the sulfates of these metals.”

Essentially the Müller vesicle is acting like a girl on a swing. But, imagine the entire ceiling moving, the girl hanging on the swing will change direction if the ceiling is the suspended fuselage of a plane making violent turns.

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What Nature has designed in the Müller vesicle is a miniature accelerometer to detect a gravity force change by swinging one way or another, the weighted swing essentially reacting to the change in gravity direction.

“Due to the asymmetric attachment of the body to the dorsal wall of the vesicle and due to the limitation in free movement set by the vesicle wall, the Muller body can take only one of the two possible positions for any of the four ways the cells usually orient themselves. If the cells are swimming head down or if they glide horizontally with their ciliated side downwards, the Müller body falls to the anterior right side of the vesicle nearly directly beneath the ciliary tube. If, conversely, the ciliate swims head up or if it glides horizontally on the underside of a surface, the body will be found in the posterior left side of the vesicle. Observations on turning cells show that the shift in position of the body takes place well within one second. During the movement, the stalk does not seem to bend. The total free path of the body is 3-4 microns, leading to a change of roughly 90 degrees in the angle between the stalk and the ciliary tube.”

“The fact that the Müller body takes one position within its vesicle when the cell is either oriented head down or with the ciliated side down and another position when the cell is either oriented with its head up or its ciliated side up is consistent with the observed behavior of Loxodes. If cells are placed in oxygen containing water, they will swim straight downwards. If they change orientation during their descent, they will tumble until the anterior end is directed downwards again. Once at the bottom, however, they will glide horizontally along it without an excessive frequency of tumbling. Therefore this orientation seems as acceptable to them as swimming downwards, given the O2 tension of the environment. In an anoxic environment exactly the opposite is the case; the cells tend either to swim upwards or to glide along the underside of objects.”

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“It is a general observation that the presence of modified or unmodified cilia is nearly always a feature of sensory cells or organelles It is now generally believed that the transduction of the (mechanical) sensory input is not due to the cilium itself, which merely acts as a lever, but that it takes place at the base of the cilium. Here the mechanical stress on the cell membrane is believed to change the conductance. leading to a depolarization or a hyperpolarization. ”

” The change in membrane potential is then propagated along the surface of the cell leading to a nervous impulse or to a reversal or an increased frequency of ciliar motion. Our observations are consistent with this. The stalk supporting the Müller body seems rigid during the motion of the body and at the same time it is anchored to the posterior kinetosome by the microtubules. The kinetosome must therefore follow the movements of the slatolith. On the other hand, the ciliary tube is anchored to the wall of the vesicle. Consequently, any movement of the Müller body must lead to a deformation of some structure at the base of the ciliary tube, which then presumably transduces that mechanical signal into an electrical one. A likely candidate for this structure is the surface membrane adjacent to the

tensegrity membrane

ciliated kinetosome, but this is not really known. It seems likely, although entirely conjectural, that all the cilia of the kinety to which the Müller vesicles belong have a role as mechanoreceptors since they are immotile and held like bristles. If this is so, the Müller vesicle represents only a further development of a more primitive mechanoreceptor. The proportionality of Müller vesicle numbers to surface area in different species is consistent with the idea that the signal from the vesicles propagates as a membrane depolarization, but that the signal is dampened as it spreads over the surface. It is an important aspect of loxodid behavior and of its adaptive significance, that the geotaxis is modified by the environment, viz., that the ciliates tend to swim up or down according to the oxygen, tension. This requires that another receptor (presumably for oxygen,) can reverse the response to a given position of the Müller body.”

Please notice the highlighted descriptions of the authors, specifically, like, anchored and surface membrane they hint of the force of stretched tension attachments within these descriptions. What is happening here, what is Nature telling us, revealing in her ancient subtlety of shape design?

Nature is revealing inside a ciliate creature, as if behaving like a miniature submarine that can self sense its motions seeking out the nutrient rich layer at the correct oxygen tension within a defined density of light penetration into the correct zone of life-sustaining opportunity. The shape of this creature can bend to turn, rapidly pivoting into the light shaft of its opportunity by aligning into the gravity vector. Nature is revealing to us the über importance of gravity sensing as the primal orientation signal processing to align the direction of motion of a shape based intelligence system, based on suspended tension/compression shape a la floating Snelson tension membrane inside this tiny creature flitting inside a murky puddle.

What we learn as we try to comprehend a brain concussion is the enormously old, one billion year heritage that sensing gravity within a gravity based accident of deceleration is first sensed via the vestibular system into a shape based sensing apparatus designed under floating tension/compression, which is the city architecture of our massively interactive brain shape. It is following this ancient Müller vesicle trace as it reveals itself in our modern 2013 brain anatomy.

Like a precious code, the ancient signalling is the essence of back tracking into navigating the priority of the logic of the problem of brain concussion. Within this tiny puddle with swimming  ciliate loxodes, we learn to appreciate the basics of Nature, how to trace the first sensing motion of gravity when a brain concussion occurs, to address the current question: what sense has the oldest core signaling priority within a hierarchy of signalling status?

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