Fruit flies have concussions too

DROSOPHILIA Size-vs-Penny-1024x768
The fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster is small. The size is not important to demonstrate the points I will introduce. Fruit flies can suffer brain concussions just like people can. Remember in Nature size is a relative scaleable function within compression/tension signalling networks. Let’s zoom in.

drosophala headThe image of a fruit fly head-on is at the Angstrom scale of electron microscopy the scale appearance shifts now tipping the tiny toward looming large transforming into a very different shape. But not really this shape is present we just can’t discriminate the tiny detail but the shape compression/tension is still there. Zoom in zoom out the shape coherence stays the same. Nature builds things this way. It’s like looking at the night sky overhead in our Vermont cabin. Some nights are simply translucent. Then I gaze into a quadrant with my binoculars revealing even greater density packed with sparkling stars. Working with fruit flies is going the other way in terms of shape size. The incredible thing is as you get smaller and smaller the richness just gets more dense on the details despite the shrinking. Everything is connected in this fashion. What a fruit fly can teach us is astonishing about ourselves as a species.

Drosophila Eye Development

All kinds of Frankenstein type of experiments can be performed distorting the very shape of the eyes in this particular comparison of gene substitution. Ethic review committees around the planet do not hesitate for one instant toward approving such robust feature distorting experiments, after all these flies are so tiny. Looking like two hulking helmeted linemen on opposite sides of the gridiron, what happens at the point of impact collision when heads are rammed into each other? Can fruit flies sustain minor brain injury? The same thing that happens to human heads that massive deceleration against head collisions causing brain tissue warping then distorting back inside an elastic rebound of recovery of shape. What mimicking brain concussions fruit flies can reveal to us about acceleration/deceleration brain injury. It all starts with gravity the first sensation at the force of acceleration that is at the core of signalling on our planet inside all manner of creatures small to large in scale. What happens inside a gravity based brain injury?

I will be citing from a remarkable brain injury report from a fruit fly model :

Drosophila model of closed head traumatic brain injury Rebeccah J. KatzenbergeraCarin A. LoewenbDouglas R. WassarmanaAndrew J. PetersenaBarry Ganetzkyb,1, and David A. Wassarmana, published in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Of The United States of America (PNAS) October 14, 2013

We share many activities with fruit flies like mating. Essentially all creatures are programmed to procreate by gene passing-on learned survival skills from one generation to the next. One of the remarkable skill capacities of the fruit fly is their ability to fly to navigate within 3 dimensions. This reflex I have termed gravity-space-time (GST) orienting to gravity. A fruit fly flies oriented relative toward the position of the horizon. Somehow the fruit fly has a reflex that us humans call a yawn which is this Einsteinian type of gravity calibrating reflex. When the Drosophila are subjected to impact as in head type impact some don’t fly anymore. Hence a minor traumatic brain injury is first a vestibular injury. That is what fruit flies teach us. But Nature is very frugal- one system also overlaps into another system. Yawning and mating are very close in the organization of central control networks in human brain stems. A brain damaged fruitfly will also not mate following an injury, remember they can’t even orient themselves.

DROSOPHALA MATING 3886269648_5071ac68fa_bBut Nature has done a remarkable job on accomplishing transmission of information with the survival instinct of reproduction. Once that event is accomplished Nature has not evolved an elaborate display of repair especially for brain injury. Basically at that point things become disposable. I’m sorry if I appear brutal but that is the scale of accomplishment, brain injury is not something Nature has resolved in evolution. But let’s profit from these experiments, what are the main events following a brain concussion ?

HELMET HELMET giants_broncos_rainThe impact shakes the very exoskeleton of the Drosophila. The researchers devised a clever device to inflict the sudden deceleration/acceleration of a violent collision energy impacting into the brain substance. Despite the significant size change between Drosophila to humans the mathematical link that determines neuron network design as architecture that encompasses the tensegrity tension/compression integrity exists in a chiral left/right architecture of diverse neurons involving neurotransmitters covered by surface glial cells with a blood-brain-barrier.  “Glial cells are relevant since they incorporate the innate immune system. The fly brain has a similar inelastic hard covering cranium within the exoskeleton surrounding the brain, the cuticle. The cuticle defines the shape of the head to provide protection for the brain.  

From the front (ventral according to the neuraxis). Indicated are the superior lateral and superior medial protocerebra (s l pr, s m pr), the left and right protocerebra divided by the pars intercerebralis (pars in). Visible components of the olfactory pathways are the antennal lobes (ant lo), the mushroom body alpha lobe and beta, gamma lobe complex. Su oes g = suboesophageal ganglion. Dr. Xuejun Sun, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University,

From the front (ventral according to the neuraxis). Indicated are the superior lateral and superior medial protocerebra (s l pr, s m pr), the left and right protocerebra divided by the pars intercerebralis (pars in). Visible components of the olfactory pathways are the antennal lobes (ant lo), the mushroom body alpha lobe and beta, gamma lobe complex. Su oes g = suboesophageal ganglion. Dr. Xuejun Sun, Department of Psychology, Dalhousie University,

The fly brain is organized into three regions, the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and triocerebrum, which are homologous to the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, respectively of humans. The Drosophila has a fluid hemolymph acting as a blood-like carrier system for macrophages and nutrients separating the brain from the cuticle. Other researchers have used the fruit fly to study a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, effects on memory and sleep patterns. ” ….fly and human brains have common architectural, cellular and molecular features. The fly brain is bilaterally symmetrical and is joined to the ventral ganglion that innervates the body, similar to the way that the spinal cord innervates the human body.

The researchers managed to mimic the contusion contortion behaviour of a brain rattled so-to-speak during the violent contact between brain  against the hardened exoskeleton cuticle. The Wisconsin-Madison group described the similarities as: ” Using the brain inducing damage model, we found that fundamental characteristics of human traumatic brain injury (TBI) also occur within the brains of Drosophila. We also found that primary injuries exacerbate the normal age-related decline in flies. This may explain why human TBI is associated with cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders that are typical of older individuals and why TBI outcomes are worse in older individuals.” In other words traumatic brain injury may contribute to accelerated aging within the fruit  fly brain’s structures.

How do you give a concussion to a fruit fly? It’s called a HIT (high [head]  impact trauma) device. Looking somewhat lie a Jack-in-the-box, a standard screw top plastic vial holding un-anesthetized fruit flies in the bottom under a cotton ball plug attached to the free end of a spring is pulled onto the side then released in a horizontal sweep. Essentially the conditions inside the plastic vial are a miniature version of a violent bus accident careening over a precipice abruptly accelerating then brutally colliding, fruit fly bodies flying everywhere in all manner of horrible contact against the inside surfaces.

Jack__in_the_box___Skulljester_by_WillemXSMThe attached vial to the spring hits a polyurethane pad nearby. The randomness of impact injuries to the fruit fly occupants in terms of location and strength is the same type occurring with of falls, sports collisions and automobile crashes that produce brain trauma injuries that happen with people with variable force primary injuries. Let’s get back to the bus crash for fruit flies.Let’s examine the sequence of brain trauma. What are the genes  that trigger following minor head trauma following a HIT to their brain zone ?

Minor traumatic brain injury in humans affects the brain as potential neurodegeneration occurring over time passing by affecting memory capacity and sleep cycles. That is the reason that these researchers opted to study as if miniature bus crashes of fruit flies together since fruit flies and human brains have common architectural with cellular and molecular features. But the transition also points out the features important how Nature measure’s gravity itself within such small organisms. The pointing finger is how does the sensing of gravity work for a fruit fly? What it reveals is that like Einstein with his warping of space with gravity at the scale of stars, we have Nature warping gravity at the sensing of information. Gravity sensing becomes intelligence at the scale of the fruit fly as it breaks contact into the atmosphere with a flying organism. This marvel happens in ways we still do not comprehend.

wing tensegrity fruit fly

Gravity warping as command structure of architectural design with a flying fruit fly defying gravity itself. The design of the wings of the fruit fly is the mathematical design of floating tension/compression of tensegrity in motion a la Snelson. Recall that tensegrity can support structure without gravity. Mass is suspended in the accomplishment of the design as a distributed field space capable of vibrating at 200 beats per second.

Researchers at the University of Washington used an array of high-speed video cameras operating at 7,500 frames a second to capture the wing and body motion of flies after they encountered a looming image of an approaching predator.

“Although they have been described as swimming through the air, tiny flies actually roll their bodies just like aircraft in a banked turn to maneuver away from impending threats,” said Michael Dickinson,  UW professor of biology and co-author of a paper on the findings in the April 11 issue of Science. “We discovered that fruit flies alter course in less than one one-hundredth of a second, 50 times faster than we blink our eyes, and which is faster than we ever imagined.”

Eight images of fly show banked turn

In the midst of a banked turn, the flies can roll on their sides 90 degrees or more, almost flying upside down at times, said Florian Muijres,  a UW postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the paper.

“These flies normally flap their wings 200 times a second and, in almost a single wing beat, the animal can reorient its body to generate a force away from the threatening stimulus and then continues to accelerate,” he said.

“The brain of the fly performs a very sophisticated calculation, in a very short amount of time, to determine where the danger lies and exactly how to bank for the best escape, doing something different if the threat is to the side, straight ahead or behind,” Dickinson said.

“How can such a small brain generate so many remarkable behaviors? A fly with a brain the size of a salt grain has the behavioral repertoire nearly as complex as a much larger animal such as a mouse. That’s a super interesting problem from an engineering perspective,” Dickinson said.

Here in the elegant words of John Bender and Mark Frey are the ways Nature measures and senses gravity in insects : Invertebrate solutions for sensing gravity/ Current Biology Vol 19 No 5 R186 -R190. “In the absence of wind, an animal standing at rest is acted upon only by the force of gravity. An animal might not explicitly calculate the global gravitational vector per se, but rather may actively modulate local joint angles and torques to implicitly compensate for gravity’s pull. In many instances, insects and crustaceans measure the angles of their appendages’ joints using clusters of mechanosensitive hairs, called hair plates.  drosophila_suzukii08 SEM In one such cluster, the prosternal organ of insects, a grove of hairs sprout from the forward part of the thorax. As the animal’s head moves, it brushes against these hairs. By monitoring the deformation of each hair, the animal can precisely determine the orientation of its head relative to its thorax. The prosternal organs are especially well-developed in highly visual animals such as flies and mantids — animals for which the body-centered location of visual stimuli is very important. Hair plates also serve similar roles on leg, wing, and body joints.”

In addition to measuring joint position, invertebrates also have  specializations for measuring joint load. Whereas our bones have no active sensory capacity and instead our sensors are imbedded in surrounding, soft tissues, many invertebrates are equipped with sensory arrays embedded in the exoskeleton at strategic points and with specific orientations. Called campaniform sensilla in insects, lyriform organs in arachnids and centipedes, and cuticular stress detectors in crustaceans, these are similar in mechanism to the stretch and pressure sensors in human skin. It is not known whether these receptors were inherited from a common ancestor, but they clearly have convergent functions. Each of these invertebrate stretch receptors is composed of an oval-shaped slit which can be deformed by pressure along its short axis.”

drosophola Formation of the cephalic furrow in the anterior end of a developing

Drosophila- formation of the cephalic furrow in the anterior end of a developing embryo

“This induced deformation leads to ion flux, which is transduced and relayed to the central nervous system by dedicated afferent neurons. Insects possess additional stretch receptors called scolopidial organs. A subset of these, called chordotonal organs, are attached to inflexible connective tissue spanning joints inside the exoskeleton. Scolopidial organs act as strain sensors, measuring the distance between their attachment points as well as its rate of change.

“But then how would an animal determine which stimuli merit a more interactive response? This question is relevant not just to invertebrates, but to humans
as well. Possibly, the answer lies in the fact that gravity is constant, whereas stimuli requiring a change in behavior are likely to be unpredictable or irregular and thus
more salient. Intriguingly, making the distinction between irrelevant and evocative stimuli requires two different neural responses to gravity: postural feedback always needs to account for gravitational pull, but task-level control should be adaptive and ignore such static inputs. The neurobiology of this sort of parallel control architecture has yet to be fully worked out in any animal. Invertebrates display complex
and robust behavioral equilibrium reflexes with extremely limited neural resources, a paradox which serves to experimentally highlight the underlying neural mechanisms.”

As the transition from boneless insects occurs within the continuum of evolution capacity to use architectural design to solve problems, sensing gravity is a highly coordinated neural activity. A brain concussion is essentially first sensed within  vestibular systems as a motion detected within the force of deceleration. The fruit fly as a member of the invertebrates suffers concussion like effects that evoke a secondary immune response coupled with an accelerated aging effect within the longevity of this organism.

The fruit fly has exquisite vision capacity to evade predators. Attempting to mimic that visual scene unfolding has opened the field of virtual reality goggles. In the latest understanding of how to accomplish merging virtual reality for vision goggles that immerse the participant into experiencing seamless vision with no disturbing vestibular effects that produce dizzying nausea. One company the upstart Oculus Rift described in WIRED magazine by author Peter Rubin reveals the jumps of understanding that inventor Palmer Luckey used to create the sensation of what the engineers call ‘presence’ for the brain’s interaction of the fake reality. Listen to what the device describes in its design, “The biggest challenge in creating realistic VR is getting the image to change with your head movements, precisely and without any perceptible lag. The Rift fuses readings from a gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer to evaluate head motion. Even better, it takes 1,000 readings a second, allowing it to predict motion and pre-­render images, shaving away precious milliseconds of latency.” What this device begins to accomplish is the critical importance of fusing the visual images with head movement using a gyroscope with an accelerometer to orient the projected visual field without delay of processing for our brain to interpret at the rate of 1000 verification per second. Its like the transition of watching movie frames once transforming at the critical speed to reduce any flicker so that the images fuse as one continuum. What Luckey and software engineer John Carmack have matched is how the head facing forward uses a camera to orient the dimensions of an external wall as what are termed fiducial markers to calibrate the interaction of the viewers spatial information to the viewers position upon the virtual reality scene. Let’s take a step back here. Neither of these men are brain scientists they are virtual reality problem solvers.

Inside Oculus rift virtual reality googles with individual eye lenses creating 'presence' within the viewers own brian seamless to the visual experience

Inside Oculus rift virtual reality googles with individual eye lenses creating ‘presence’ within the viewers own brian seamless to the visual experience

But the gist of their VR goggles highlights the significance of head position as facing forward to the perceived image related to the translation as either the image shifts or the head shifts with a moving body. In other words our world is like this virtual world that drives the smooth image over our perception is dependant on a matrix of space being created around us as we experience ordinary scenes of life.  Even a fruit fly at the scale of this organism can perform this kind of 3 D interaction within its neural network to evade predators. The critical aspect is the sensing of gravity within a matrix of space for the organism to live and thrive. Even for a fruit fly concussion this effect deteriorates the creatures ability to perform since its own accelerometer gyroscope shape sensing is perturbed which affects the very length of its lifespan. When a fruit fly suffers a concussion the interaction within the perceived matrix of X-Y-Z space is unfused from the flawed positioning of its mechanosensitive foot plates. 3D navigation is lost yet everything is linked to this acute vestibular perception including the post secondary effected genes that react to the vestibular injury. Vestibular signalling is at the apex of signal interpretation. Vestibular sensing is gravity based shape sensing at the core of hierarchies that Nature has established during the advance of evolution. Injure this primary system degrades the entire harmony. The predator wins.

We as vertebrates also actively sense the position and direction of gravity as a primary vestibular system that coordinates to our autonomic systems. This gravity sensing system takes a specific hit of vulnerability with traumatic head injury. We will also age prematurely with concussive head deceleration affecting a more rapid cognitive decline which the professional football players are already revealing with their life shortening chronic encephalopathy deficits.



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Dr William Feindel 1918-2014


I am eternally indebted to Dr William Feindel for guiding my early research when he revealed personally to me, by recalling an operative observation from the side of pioneering neurosurgeon,  Dr Wilder Penfield during an early 1930 brain surgery that became a beacon of insight as it oriented forward the sweep beam of a lighthouse pointing the way into the gloom of night, lighting my way to discovery. Dr Feindel told me, “When Penfield grabbed the dura mater with his Adson forceps that 1930 morning a seizure triggered instantaneously. What we didn’t comprehend was how the seizure triggered when the dura tissue envelope was pulled .” Recall from your Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Anatomy days the dura mater is the intimate covering surrounding the brain, the tough outer covering of the meninges.


Dura Mater: Latin terms meaning [tough mother]. The dura mater is the outermost of the three meninges. It is quite tough, forming a sac containing the spinal cord and brain, known as the dural sac or thecal sac. The image, from a book by Andreas Vesalius, shows a head with the dura mater in situ.

During his tenure as The Montreal Neurological Institute affectionately called The Neuro’s director from 1972 to 1984, Dr. Feindel largely introduced revolutionary brain scanning tools to Canada, acquiring the country’s first CAT, MR and PET units. In 1984, the tools were combined into the McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, a unit that established The Neuro as one of the world’s leading brain-imaging facilities. Under Dr. Feindel’s direction, The Neuro doubled in size with the construction of two new wings, the Penfield Pavilion and the Webster Pavilion. McGill inaugurated the William Feindel Chair in Neuro-Oncology in 2001 with the support of the Clive Baxter Memorial Fund.” -The McGill Reporter-March 2014

snook trolling rig 003The simplest most elegant of human contact is the grasp of index finger with the thumb. Such pinching by pulling onto the dura surface of the brain was what Feindel described to me, still puzzled in wonder fifty years later. It would still take me a couple of decades to understand the connections to his observations. Penfield and Fenstermacher reported in the medical journal Brain in 1930, what Penfield described as ‘brain pull,’ or tissue traction perhaps increased tension as a better term of description of inner pre-stress within scarring paths of trajectories of objects making their way into the brain as part of brain trauma occurring also with glioblastoma tumours pulling by distorting surrounding brain tissue until the inner strain became strong enough that a surgeon’s tug at the dura could trigger a seizure.

Here’s where things get magical. Let’s invoke a great scientist, Sir Isaac Newton thinking during a long convalescence.

Newton perplexed at the effect of gravity at a distance assumed a vacuum in between, as if gravity attracts over a distance not pursuing by occupying  thru that distance. He was not aware of field theory that gravity inhabits a field acting as a force acting with direction. I will now call what Dr Feindel described to me the Fenstermacher-Penfield-Feindel Field (FPF Field) within the brain. Since gravity is present within the brain structure the force of pinching a portion is felt both at the local distance and the long distance at the same time. This FPF Field occupies the directed force that orients the entire sensing apparatus of the brain. How so the observer might query? Think of the brain field as a traction sensitive field of tensional integrity felt only in the attachments within the structure.

If you watch this video think of the scarring within a section of the brain pulling tighter. Amazingly this is the field distortion of space-time as gravity distorts the sample space. Blogger, SHANE describes this geometrical visualization, as,  ” G-field script is an attempt to visualize the units of space-time as they are distorted by a gravity type field. Given that each ‘cube’ represents a unit of space-time, greatly enlarged for this purpose, the distortions of each said unit will continue until the geometry can no longer represent a ‘cube’ type space, at which point the ‘cube’ will vanish. If at a later time I plan to add additions to the script to uphold a change in geometry from a standard eight point geometric shape to one that can support seven or fewer points as well as adding mass value which will increase the strength of field generated by the attractor point for each unit of space-time that has collapsed onto the attractor point. This video is a top view of the change in the quantity of space-time units and how they are distorted over time.

Watching this animation over and over here are some thoughts: What we do not have yet in our repertoire of brain imaging data sets is how tensegrity maps floating tension/compression actually move what is their range of motion? To trigger a seizure means the entire loaded space within the tissue atmosphere of the brain mass deforms past a set point to trigger, the tipping point of changed critical tension/compression. So portions of the elastic deformation occur toward a cascade of gene changes as receptor  zones are reconfigured.

The brain pull Penfield described is in effect the balanced tension/compression a la Snelson that I have been trying to describe in previous essays. The tensegrity within the brain tissue can trigger electrically at the mechanical tension tipping point when scar tissue has contracted to the degree where the fingers of a surgeon like Dr Penfield probing the epileptic brain at the tension envelope surrounding the brain is integral to the tension necessary to collapse into a seizure state when massive loss of sensing occurs especially loss of consciousness.

Donald Ingber Founder of Wyss Institute at Harvard University holding tensegrity models

Donald Ingber Founder of Wyss Institute at Harvard University holding tensegrity models

According to Wyss Institute founder Donald Ingber, working at Harvard University, elegantly describes in Scholarpedia:” Tensegrity is a design principle that applies when a discontinuous set of compression elements is opposed and balanced by a continuous tensile force, thereby creating an internal prestress that stabilizes the entire structure.”


Kenneth Snelson perched -on-tower-from-International-Journal-of-Space-Structures

Kenneth Snelson perched -on-tower-from-International-Journal-of-Space-StructuresThe first person to grasp then build a structure based on tensegrity was one of Fuller student’s Kenneth Snelson who built a structure in 1948. “Using two X-shaped wooden struts suspended in air by a taut nylon cable, Snelson captured the defining features of tensegrity:” The idea that only one man got to the understanding first pervades the history of science. It is the classic tale of great minds getting to the same problem independently. Fuller was more skilled as a salesman to promote the idea but Snelson built structures around the world to blossom forth the idea of such novel structures.

  1. Pervasive tension and a separation of rigid elements. In Snelson’s now iconic structure, the compression-resistant struts do not touch but instead are individually lifted, each embraced and interconnected by a system of continuously tensed cables, a condition that Snelson and Fuller called “continuous tension, discontinuous compression.”
  2. Stable. Though ethereal in appearance—its wooden Xs appear almost to float—Snelson’s sculpture is remarkably stable, despite its minimal use of rigid elements. This stability is due to the fact that tensile and compressive components are, at all times, in mechanical equilibrium.
  3. Prestressed. This mechanical equilibrium results from the way the compression and tensile components interact to bring out each other’s essential nature: the cables pull in on both ends of the struts, while the struts push out and stretch the cables. The result is that each element in a tensegrity structure is already stressed—the compression elements are already compressed, the tensile elements already tensed—and they are stressed by each other, a condition known as “self-stress” or “prestress.”
  4. Resilient. While they are stabilized by prestress, tensegrity structures are also exquisitely responsive to outside perturbation. Their components immediately reorient when the structure is deformed, and they do so reversibly and without breaking.
  5. Globally Integrated. Because the components are so intimately interconnected, what is felt by one is felt by all, producing a truly holistic structure.
  6. Modular. Though complete on its own, a tensegrity structure can combine with other such structures to form a larger tensegrity system. In these systems, individual tensegrity units can be disrupted without compromising overall system integrity.
  7. Hierarchical. In fact, smaller tensegrity structures may function as compressive or tensile components in a larger tensegrity system, which in turn may perform a similar function in still larger systems
Snelson 1948 X-Module sculpture

Snelson 1948 X-Module sculpture

Loop back to those 1930 observations cited by  Dr Feindel, the brain pull that had changed within the brain. Now the 2012 descriptions by Ingber have a more pertinent ring to them. But what is also being described here in what I must insist are the first attempts at shape sensing since the core of this discussion is about self-awareness about consciousness that is somehow involved in this structure this architecture of design at the center of our brain performing. Surprisingly what Ingber omitted from the tensegrity description is the ability to build the tensegrity shape without gravity. But there is a duality of building both with gravity and without gravity. “Snelson’s X-structure unlocked a world in which structures could be flexible and firm, holistic and hierarchical. Over the past 60 years, artists, engineers, and architects have used the lessons of tensegrity to build previously impossible structures—space frames, deployable moon-base shelters, as well as sky-piercing sculptures—helping to realize Fuller’s vision of a universe filled with man-made tensegrity structures.” We have a choice to build in gravity or to build without gravity, the tensional integrity is the only way to accomplish both !

Buckminister Fuller holding geodesic tensegrity sphere

Buckminister Fuller holding geodesic tensegrity sphere

When we combine MRI with oriented tracts within the brain we see cable like structures like rope strands, something not familiar to Dr Feindel in 1930 as this kind of combination imaging technology did not exist yet. But you can appreciate the description of ‘brain pull’ as tension on the tracts within the anatomy as the result of inner brain tissue scarring.

tracts of MRI

“Snelson would later argue that tensegrity is a principle that is realized only through man-made objects. But Fuller’s vision rested on the conviction that Nature builds using tensegrity. Indeed, the human frame with its many tensile muscles, ligaments, and tendons pulling up on the rigid bones of the body, thereby stabilizing and supporting them against the force of gravity, is a prime example of tensegrity at work. In the last few decades, scientists have shown that tensegrity is a fundamental design principle of Nature, operating at the level of organs, tissues, cells, and even molecules (Ingber, 1998). Their discoveries are leading to a whole new array of man-made tensegrity structures, this time at the micro- and even the nano-scales.”

So now we have the magical link between the brain between the dura. The holistic connectedness between local shape linking into dynamic interactions throughout the entire shape within the brain. Shape is signalling as shape changes. But shape behaves always within a gravity field so that is the analogy of warping shape both occurring within their field of influence.

Another of the defining features describing tensegrity is the ability to convert its description into the language of mathematics. I will not introduce equations at this point since that will rupture the conversation. But this conversion gets the idea of both mathematical tensegrity into the public domain where all good science must be understood at its essence. Now if Nature makes such a definite emphasis on the gravity field don’t you think that field would not be calibrated for the function to be optimal for the usage of its owner? That’s where yawing comes in: we yawn to orient to the direction of gravity as the essential vestibular reflex. Astronauts in the first few nights of adaptation with micro–gravity stop the deep breath inspiration pacing within their brain from chest/intercostal and diaphragm muscles transforming into pacing of the abdominal muscles, their yawning frequency diminishes at the same time. Autistic children within the womb of their mother don’t elaborate the yawning reflex neither when they are born. The autistic child performs as if outside in a micro gravity space-flight sensing vestibular deranged field yet very much on a gravity based planet.

Original photograph of a stick-and-string tensegrity model containing a smaller tensegrity at its center that is connected to the surface by black elastic thread (not visible against black background), which Ingber used to present his cellular tensegrity theory.  This model is unanchored and therefore both the ‘cell’ and ‘nucleus’ take on round forms, much as observed in living cells. [Image: Don Ingber.]

Original photograph of a stick-and-string tensegrity model containing a smaller tensegrity at its center that is connected to the surface by black elastic thread (not visible against black background), which Ingber used to present his cellular tensegrity theory. This model is unanchored and therefore both the ‘cell’ and ‘nucleus’ take on round forms, much as observed in living cells. [Image: Don Ingber.]

Such are the tantalizing clues that guide us trying to understand our consciousness why we yawn. Why a special conversation two decades ago from Dr Feindel lights such a long light of illumination. The Penfield-Fenstermacher-Feindel Field of brain tissue triggers at the grasp of the forceps, the trigger is within the tension integrity collapse of a seizure. The shape of the brain- the shape is shape sensing.

So a final grateful thank you so much Dr Feindel for sharing the wonder of the ‘brain pull.’ Thank you for acting as a wise beacon of direction towards my inquisitiveness, letting me learn to learn to explore.


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Robots don’t yawn

FACE ANIMATRONICS ROBOT interview_gustav_08As we are about to enter the robot age the mechanical face peers back at us perhaps as a robonurse helping us into a hospital bed. Twilight time when the balance is gone and gravity is horizontal. We stare into this mechanical face seeking comfort and perhaps hope. If you have to build a face that responds that reaffirms the compassion what design considerations do the Disney animatronics engineers consider? What does our face do anyways, just convey emotions or how does this facial language express itself universally across all cultures? Is there such a thing as common facial language that needs no Google translation to function ? Let’s examine the facial yawn as the most common of all human expressions, the unique link between every person on our Planet including all mammalian life.


















When an Apollo 11 astronaut like Buzz Aldrin yawns what is his face showing ?

Is he bored, is he tired, is he trying to engage his brain to get more alert, is he copying a nearby technician yawning or is he doing something else, something Einsteinian, in terms of its magnitude of performance -its relativity.  Do astronauts yawn when they are on their space missions, in other words do you need gravity to yawn ?

facial muscles anatomyHuman faces have a big number of muscles controlling the face as it yawns. The number of muscles is close to 58 plus minus, including the neck because everything is attached. How are these muscles designed ?

Are the muscles designed to support antigravity effects ?

What unique design works both without gravity and with gravity ? Tensional integrity or as I have referred in previous essays as tensegrity, a la Snelson via Buckminister Fuller via Donald Ingber is how Nature has solved this reference to the pull of gravity.

Weight especially mass is handled elegantly within tensegrity within a compression web of balanced forces under tension with compression equilibrium, suspended in a distributed fashion. The bonus is tensegrity contains the measure to store energy sensing changes acting to shift its shape under strain conditions. Local forces are sensed at a distance.  Nature accomplishes this intelligence using tensegrity as its design matrix. Shape is at the core of the DNA molecule and shape is at the core of analyzing the immediate environment. This is how shape sensing functions. The very first requirement of a single creature in the ocean is to establish what is up what is down and where is the horizon, life is organized around gravity.  At the end gravity wins we- no longer can move we stop -we lie down on the surface and we die. Gravity always wins.


When Jessica Rabbit yawns the eyes close the mouth rises open, deep inspiration pause then expiration. That’s what we notice as the main sequence simplistically cartoon fashion. But the real thing is so much denser richer than this illusion.

But the human face also evolves in time aging changing shape changing tension. Changing shape with disease, like autism and epilepsy. Life paints its effects across its surface leaving its passing in the bones below those tensegrity surfaces

FACE MOVING IN AGE image007The small movie animation shows the dynamics of shape dimensions moving in time in a child.


But what really is in motion are the bones that are beneath the skin and muscle. As we age our face moves in relation to the effects of gravity, hence the muscles are termed antigravity for the support they give. But the bones do drift, in their position in their dimensions. The skin is like a stretched membrane over the surface behaving in the floating tension fashion. Unlike the robots the attachments are not separated like mechanical pieces that fit onto each other, their shapes are embedded since the bone is in shape conversation to the brain, within a communication net. The face is now no longer a covering -the shape of the face is a code of information for the current state of the brain. On a terminal cancer ward experienced nurses can immediately tell when things make a turn for the worse, simply by looking at their patients faces. A European twin study confirmed this observation in the British Medical Journal, the older looking twin will always die sooner, always. The younger looking twin will outlive the older looking twin. Age is expressed as the metric of shape of the face, predictive toward the slid to oblivion.

Perceived age as clinically useful biomarker of ageing:cohort study BMJ 2009; 339 doi: (Published 13 December 2009) 

  1. Kaare Christensen, professor1,
  2. Mikael Thinggaard, mathematician1,
  3. Matt McGue, professor12,
  4. Helle Rexbye, research fellow1,
  5. Jacob v B Hjelmborg, associate professor1,
  6. Abraham Aviv, professor3,
  7. David Gunn, postdoctoral scientist4,
  8. Frans van der Ouderaa, vice president corporate research 4, director of business development6,
  9. James W Vaupel, professor5

Author Affiliations

  1. 1Danish Twin Registry and Danish Aging Research Center, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark

  2. 2Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA

  3. 3Center of Human Development and Aging, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA

  4. 4Unilever Discover, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire

  5. 5Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany

  6. 6Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Ageing, Leiden University Medical Centre Leiden, LUMC, 2300RC Leiden, Netherlands

But what is wrong with the Jessica Rabbit’s image yawning ? We don’t normally turn our heads when we yawn-we tend to face forward which is part of the facial muscle pattern specifically stabilizing the head by facing forward employing the suboccipital muscles at the back/base of the neck. But notice their configuration, their attachments. They are part of a tensegrity net that makes our bodies move so effortlessly in gravity.

Suboccipital_muscles06The positioning suggests a pivoting, by centering the head when these muscles are activated during a yawn motion sequence. That is the bonus feature that exists with tensegrity structures -they have a built in torquing that positions into a preferred central balance position. Let’s look down the body to the contact point onto the surface. When we look at the capacity of how the human foot has muscles linked into fascia with load dispersal coupled to mobility, what is loosely described as proprioception how does this information contribute to balance? It is at this exact contact interaction that we walk, or run or slip in our daily motion trying to balance the body above to not slip and fall. The brain needs to know where gravity points otherwise we are reduced to crawling on hands and knees child style.

The pattern of occipital muscles has a tensegrity attachment aspect to it, which is how all the muscles function around the skeleton. But the same architecture exists in the soft pliable tissue, even our brain. All these cells are positioned to perform tensegrity style. That’s how they grow in the embryo. If all this performance doesn’t make you gasp in wonder then you must be a very bored person.

tensegrity1 occiput musclesAbove all else a yawn utilizing 58 muscles is a very coordinated event that depends on a series of hierarchical communication systems. First the vestibular system has to be present for the existence of the entire balance to detect the essence of the matrix of space that exists around the body in a three-dimensional space. Just ask robot engineers how difficult the task of getting a robot to walk is, let alone stand on a ball like a child can.

Balance by Free the Robots  For a robot to balance itself it has to sense its center of mass via a gyroscope. What my point in this essay is the link between the face and the vestibular system is like a calibration of the gyroscope to the X-Y-Z of coordinate space as a simulation.

The world we see exists as a simulation in our mind. All jerkiness of vision is smoothed out into a streaming scene before us. Yet the permanence of gravity is the measure of how we interpret the world around us. As we age we lose our balance. We get stiff we sway more overcorrecting. Will we wear robots around our torso to help us move easily in this gravity space? Will robonurses help us when we can no longer rise from the bed ? What is balance? Where is the horizon? is perhaps at the very existence of intelligent life examining its position in 3 dimensional space. If a person suffers a brain concussion loosing balance is a singular first part of the injury to the brain, our inner gyyro is not stable. If you want to understand a brain concussion you must understand first what gravity means to our movement. Then how we balance in that matrix of space. But you have to link into gravity space. To do that we must tell our brain where gravity is pointing. Like a gyro we must know where up is where the opposite direction which is down. Then forward versus backward, finally left versus right. All life has evolved within a gravity field. For Nature not to calibrate itself to the gravity vector does not make sense. That’s the reason that I call this the Gravity-Space -Time reflex. When you look at the centers in the brain that are immediately affected due to gravity the fos genes reveal the effect of space flown mice brain zones. Fos is activation of dopamine receptors in this fos response. When you look at the pattern of exposure to the brain zones they overlap within the yawning circuits. In order to yawn you need both gravity and a system to orient to the gravity field. To balance our brain in gravity we yawn. But since it’s a facial display associated with boredom or sleep or intimacy or sexual desire we dismiss it as not important, as even embarrassing. As a connection for the very deep inspiration occurring with a yawn within the muscarinic receptors of the muscles from the respiratory neurons in the medulla, the motor nuclei of the cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X, and the XII are all involved. There is this whole choreography of elaboration like one of Montreal’s own Cirque de Soleil artistic performances, but this time its our very own face that is the mega star of the spectacle. Gravity is always the main component of any Cirque de Soleil show as much as it is for the audience too. The show of gravity is within the membrane mask of our face.

Cirque-du-Soleil-facesWe have evolved an entire language of the face that sweeps borders away, linking all families into one. The face is neither one language or the other but this astonishing motion against gravity, contortions expressing emotion from shape changes deep in the architecture of the brain design. This scaling of shape from DNA to link the mobile web of the face is one continuous net of information felt at the level of intuition. But for the whole display show to work the force of gravity must be primed. Our brain performs a yawn the face reflex harmonizing to the direction of gravity. It really is  Einsteinian in its breadth of performance in its elegance of execution. And yet we dismiss a yawn as something trivial.

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Petroglyphs of the vortex

Ancient people gazed into the skies to move island to island across the expanse of their expansive zone of travel, Oceana over thousands of years. What we now call the Pacific Ocean.

SPIRAL The Solstice - Hohokam Indian Spiral Petroglyph | Fine Art Photography by Stephen W. Oachs the-solsticeThese ancient people left shapes on the sacred rocks. The shape lingers in the foreground below the horizon sweeping overhead stars in a pattern of the spiral, the universal symbol that transcends all borders. All ancient people out of direct contact with each other share to create this shape of spinning stars from the night canopy stretched over the horizon. This primal shape is of wonders of unity -of dimensions greater than the distant oceans yet centered into creations core. Gravity holds the image onto the rock’s surface gravity stands at the spirals center pulling in the elements of stars in formation. The swirling symbol is at the core of nature the shape of creation happening. The primitive hand carves the features  onto surfaces all over the globe. The energy of the galaxy the energy within the DNA molecule all spiral together linked by the logarithmic scales of mathematics of cohesion joining these two extremes. The vortex image points this singular reference to Summer’s Solstice acting as the map of connection with the changing climate.

SPIRAL Chuckwalla-Spring-spiral-petroglyph

The simple whorls on the fingertips of the artist are also this idea of constant image, the spiral of life. The motion of water traversing in a gravity slid has the spiral of the vortex of spinning water. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson’s treatise On Growth and Form describes how shells are formed by rotating a closed curve around a fixed axis, the shape of the curve remains fixed but its size grows in a geometric progression.  

fractal spiral

The mathematics of fractal spirals is the source of spinning smoke from the evenings fire the common nomadic gathering at day’s end across the globe.

Yet cactus plants in the middle of the desert also spin on their central axis, what is the design blueprint behind this shape ? Is there a common design platform for Nature ? Is this the Fibonacci spiral- the Phi spiral common to all of Nature ?

SPIRAL CACTUS Copyrighted_Image_Reuse_Prohibited_793556

“By duplicating and repeating the phi spiral in a circular array with a common center point a phi vortex is created,in this case, clockwise out from the center, this vortex is most commonly seen in water and air flows, as well as in galaxies,” is from the very exacting/exciting web site created by Marshall Lefferts at

By duplicating the vortex, flipping it so that we have a complementary clockwise flow, and overlaying it onto the counter-clockwise vortex we create a phi double spiral (see illustration below ). This is a fundamental field pattern that can be understood as a cross-section of a complete spherical/toroidal energy field. It is most commonly seen in plants and particular water flow wave patterns.”

 phi double spiral centered at Node 4


Boundary Condition ” When a phi vortex or double spiral is created a synergetic phenomenon occurs that is otherwise not apparent when viewing a single phi spiral. As can be seen in the illustration above, at exactly 3 nodes out from the center point around which the vortex/double spiral is rotating there appears a distinct circle. This is the result of the phi spiral first expanding outward from the center, then as it completes its first three fractal arcs (nodes) it momentarily contracts back upon itself before expanding outward again. This creates a boundary condition, a circle (or sphere in a 3D field) that defines a potential surface boundary and a complementary inside and outside relationship to the energy field. This boundary can be seen as the necessary limit of a given entity required for the entity to come into form. For example a pine cone has an obvious double spiral pattern inherent in its form that has a limit at which it stops manifesting in physical form (though energetically its field pattern extends beyond this limit” 

So what do all these cool pictures of spirals have to do with brain concussions, if anything at all ?


We inhabit a brain made up of fractal tensegrity spirals within our very DNA. Our brain itself is based on these assembly principles designed under constraints under boundary condition perhaps as Lefferts’ might call them or as I term a la Snelson with balanced tension/compression between all elements. They are structures that Nature builds under its own from blueprints that create shape from nothingness. But even nothingness is a statement of ignorance when we have empty space we still have gravity occupying it, so it looks like there is always something in proximity we are just not able to measure it.

Moon on the Tides AQA Poetry Anthology Model Essays Relationships, Conflict, Character and VoiceWhen ancient man gazed at the floating moon so big in the field of view how could he begin to comprehend how it floats in the sky above ? How could he possibly think he was related to this orb on a shape based design by Nature. That is the amazing jump in our perception of what is around us, perhaps how and what we are made of. We are assembled like vortexes stirred in the water to create shape from amorphous liquid water. Our brain has the very same vortex behaviour as the vortex shape of galaxies overhead, guiding our ancient navigators to their new destinations.

Our brain behaves under conditions as performance under vulnerabilities according to its design. Our brain will vortex onto itself. Observers have already noticed such torque in describing it as Yakovlevian torque. “If you place your vertical bar so it is parallel with the midline along the middle and anterior of the scan, then sometimes the left hemisphere will extend beyond this bar (i.e., torque around from the left toward the right hemisphere). I have seen one left-handed subject whose right hemisphere torqued around toward the left, so based on my own experience, this happens in < 1% of the subjects I’ve seen. While I haven’t kept track of the number of left-to-right occipital petalia cases, I know it’s quite common. Per Art Toga and Paul Thompson, the “Yakovlevian anticlockwise torque … includes the frequent extension of the left occipital lobe across the midline (over the right occipital lobe), bending the interhemispheric fissure towards the right.” Arthur W. Toga and Paul M. Thompson, “MAPPING BRAIN ASYMMETRY,” Laboratory of Neuro Imaging Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA, USA

occipital_petalia_left_to_rightTermed occipital petalia, the left right asymmetry causes the brain to torque around a central axis into the midline zone. The behaviour of the brain under acceleration forces during brain concussion are brains designed by nature that move in particular ways. In the vernacular concussions are described as slamming into boney contours within the head. But that is not all that is happening. Nature has designed the brain to torque onto itself as a spiral pattern evident in life all around us even above us. To understand a brain concussion you first have to understand how nature handles shape how the vortex is born. What is petalia ? The incredible aspect is as we accumulate languages our brain zone for language pushes against the bone to expand the dimensions of this communication volume. The expanded bone is termed petalia. Now the brain is lopsided, therefore it will spin if hit.

In our heritage, evolutions of  mammals swam through Earth’s first environment, standing aside we can now see inside their heads with our modern imaging devices. We see tiny spirals on each side, within the tiny bilateral cochlea shape, microphones listening to the universe sensing which stabilizes the head, the sense of where the horizon is the most important information all these multitudes of mammals need. The sense of what is up- even the glimpse of a full moon rising above the horizon as the dolphin breaches- flying momentarily into the sky. This mammalian sensing of the vortex of gravity within a vortex of bone, is shape sensing gravity. If you want to understand how the brain reacts to gravity you have to understand the reference to shape design within the brain to unravel the mystery. To follow the shape of the vortex.

COCHLEA v43n2-ketten4en

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Nisga’a mask

Nisgaa_mask_Louvre_MH_81-22-1The Nisga’a, often formerly spelled Nishga and spelled in the Nisga’a language as Nisga’a, are an Indigenous nation or First Nation in Canada. They live in the Nass River valley of northwestern British Columbia. This mask is a permanent expression covering the human features beneath its surface, a face frozen in time. Yet the face is the brain also moving in time its features a record of the events that warp across its surfaces. The human face is not only a reflection of sweeping emotions spilling over its contours -the face is a glimpse of the brain itself both linked together as shapes within shapes.


The history of Canada overlaps in the use of masks to cover the faces of the Native Peoples’ elaborate ancient ceremonies transferring into modern pageants on frozen ice with the new spectacle of sports transformations defending the critical space of the goalies zone of stature. Our perception is burdened by this mask staring at the observer, open eyes- open mouth gaping at the emotions, somehow contained yet hidden from view. We perceive our faces as masks yet in their flickering emotions lies the story of our individual sagas etched into the shape that is linked into the tension of the brain tissue itself. As our face appears so is the state of the brain. The face is not a mask unattached to its underneath surface of bone. The face is the brain. The face is a composed surface, balanced in a web of tensegrity held into compression with tension. The same Snelson floating tension link is the design of the brain which behaves in the same fashion of tension balanced with compression.

TENSEGRITY FRACTAL WEED 7186496382_32f30663d2_k

Tensegrity is the shape within Nature that links objects that establishes self sensing, each design of floating tension acting between molecules or between seeds spreading across the wind. Shape links the intelligence separated by distance.

FACE DISTORT FRACTAL wlleonardoThe locality of elements is also linked into the distance away from that specific inner boundary. Nature designs the elaborate progression from within the embryo into becoming a coherent series of attachments that link connection with the architecture of the total shape. The shape outside is balanced to the shape inside acting as a web of compression balanced into tension.
Tensegrity Cores by_Fagerstrom (1)The inner fields of floating tension are bound onto the outer surfaces as one coherent flow of elements. Each scale of attachment has a final place of position established as the embryo morphs into its ultimate assembly of shaped final form. The Nature of form is the Nature of shape that determines the progression into intelligence, assembled in this architecture established by tension balanced with compression.

TENSEGRITY SURFACE screen-shot-2009-10-18-at-45102-pm

At the surface we see shape, that is what we are familiar with. We are not familiar to shape acting as the position of the brain in action as a state of the brain at that moment, reflecting the metabolism within the brain. This shape is best transformed into the mathematics of map comparison. Only after this translation into another language of description can we grab the subtle differences that we miss in our perception. What is the face of autism, is there such a difference? Can there be a mobile mask that defines the autism within the brain that becomes the shape of the autistic face? Lets examine the mathematical evidence of such transformation, of such shape coherence.

Montrealers are used to the face of the acrobat from the Cirque du Soleil, a masked performer that sweeps overhead of the audience. We transform our belief of mobility into the exuberance of such forms. Shape is a fleeting mask of surprise shaking our immediate expectation, shifting our fixation on the face shape as the message from the brain. We expect a symmetry of left versus right shape. It is precisely that expectation that begins our analysis of autistic face changes.

MASK CIRQUE DE SOLEIL 41E253B690FF4351BE9A7781E46F1559

Drapped as a mesh over the face is the actual mesh within the face that is the surface of shape of the face. That is the way to begin the transformation of how to link the anatomy that defines emotional expression into real brain metabolism. A performers mask is defined by its external design that merely fits over  the overall head size of the artist.

FACE HOW FORMED article-2169390-13F1E07A000005DC-856_468x414 The early progression of the human face looks like the essence of a Nisga’a mask with its wide eye brows closed stark nostril holes and gaping open mouth. The face is embedded into the structure with the brain as they form together. unlike a bridge structure spanning a distance the structure of the face is both bone and skin surface.

We see the transfer of genes within the shape of DNA. But what happens to the transfer of sensing between brain into face?

TENSEGRITY doublehelix

The DNA double helix is a Snelson design of floating tension. Listen to the description from the report: Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA by authors, Liedl THögberg BTytell JIngber DEShih WM from the journal Nat Nanotechnol. 2010 Jul;5(7):520-4.

Tensegrity, or tensional integrity, is a property of a structure indicating a reliance on a balance between components that are either in pure compression or pure tension for stability. Tensegrity structures exhibit extremely high strength-to-weight ratios and great resilience, and are therefore widely used in engineering, robotics and architecture. Here, we report nanoscale, prestressed, three-dimensional tensegrity structures in which rigid bundles of DNA double helices resist compressive forces exerted by segments of single-stranded DNA that act as tension-bearing cables. Our DNA tensegrity structures can self-assemble against forces up to 14 pN, which is twice the stall force of powerful molecular motors such as kinesin or myosin. The forces generated by this molecular prestressing mechanism can be used to bend the DNA bundles or to actuate the entire structure through enzymatic cleavage at specific sites. In addition to being building blocks for nanostructures, tensile structural elements made of single-stranded DNA could be used to study molecular forces, cellular mechanotransduction and other fundamental biological processes.

Essentially the human face is integrated into the mechanotransduction within the brain behaving as the same shape output stretched across the surface. The face is the state of balanced tension/compression of the brain, they are linked as one. The Nisga’a People had it right, the face is the representation of the brain of the person behind the mask.

FACE bones-and-muscles-muscles-of-the-faceThe naked face stripped of flesh stares out from the white pages of the anatomy text. Unseen muscles now displayed as if on their own action of motion. The sense of mass is felt in the directions of tension implicit from the drawing neatly labelled for the eye to appreciate. That is the label of deception that a typical dissection presentation reveals. Nature created the muscles within the fabric of the face both with the mobility of the skin at the surface, both attached to the structure of bone beneath, they may appear in dissection as separated but they are united in attachment. That is the unnatural stripping away of layers as if an artist were creating the volume layered surface by layered surface.

Sculptured faces loom overhead, permanent in their dimensions yet real faces predict the brain within.

WASHINGTON MOUNT RUSHMORE GEDC0853Imagine inside the Mount Rushmore rock is elastic so that vibrations from nearby volcanic strata are pushed into the massive face. Imagine the face and the brain develop in exquisite coordination such that differences in facial shape can be indicative perhaps predictive of underlying brain pathology. Only the shape sensitivity of a Snelson floating tension/compression net can accommodate such exquisite coordination. Such face-brain shape relationship have been noticed by researchers using surface modelling techniques comparing the faces of autism spectrum disorders to unaffected children to reveal atypical facial asymmetry through the direct effect of brain growth on those autism spectrum disorder faces. Let’s look at Face-brain asymmetry in autism spectrum disorders from the report of Molecular Psychiatry (2008) 13, 614-623 by P Hammond, C Forster-Gibson, AE Chudley, JE Allanson, TJ Hutton, SA Farrell, J McKenzie, JJA Holden and MES Lewis.

The faces of the participants were captured using commercial photogrammetric devices the law enforcement agencies typically use for facial recognition patterns or maxillo facial surgeons use for devising tricky surgical facial bone reconfiguration plastic surgery.

Simple inspection of two-dimensional analysis of facial features has not detected the subtleties of surface forms of the face that characterize facial phenotypes of a variety of neurodevelopmental syndromes. However, recent advances of laser based utilization of 3 dimensional image scanning have now enabled, more sensitive surface shape analysis of facial shape contours enabling accurate 3D facial gestalt of defining disease characteristics, like Fabry’s disease. The technique acronym employs 3D dense surface models (DSM) of face shape capable of detecting statistically significant facial asymmetry within autistic  spectrum disorder compared to age/sex/racially matched controls.

Where does the essence of shape sensing reveal itself ?

SHAPE SIGNALS IN CELLS 3.largeFollowing the signal induction started via a shape change across the surface as a distortion/compression, a floating tension alteration within the local neighbourhood of attachments, the sequence resolves into a domino effect of cascading reactions: transduction then transcription affecting DNA production of messenger RNA creating translation of the protein finally releasing a product outside of the cell. But the important aspect is the cell shape is more than just an outline of the cell as appearance. The shape in the sensed form of different strains arriving onto the distortion of the cell transforms the output of the cell. The protein product released is different, this assembly line of products changes as the tension changes. As the shape alters this deformation is really information. From the point of view of code language the tension/compression motion is information that we are just beginning to perceive that Nature has been employing for a very long time. The shape of DNA is accepted as the shape of inheritance. The shape of the face as the brain is the reality of the expressed strain changes reflected in the mobile face envelope. The human face is not a mask. The human face is shape as expressed information of the state of the brain. The object is to discover the mask of concussion, how it paints the features of the human face. There is no doubt in my mind that this new mask exists.

Snelson floating tension faces as surfaced attributes of tensegrity shapes

Snelson floating tension faces as surfaced attributes of tensegrity shapes

Look again at the diagram of the signal links. If you trace the step by step from one digit to the next what happens at stage 6 ? That’s where the information is in the form of the shape of the contact to the next cell and the next cell and the next cell. You see the coherence of the information is within these connections to shape. You are looking at the mobile mask of the brain when you stare at yourself in a mirror. Even a very famous face.

FACE MANDELA article-2519099-19CF5A0E00000578-696_964x778

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Supercell by Sean Heavey

Supercell by Sean Heavey

The shape of energy tends toward rotation due to the presence of gravity. Rotation within the gases of the atmosphere. The shape of Nature is symbolized within the vortex.

Does the vortex shape exist outside of Earth away from the grasp of gravity ?

SPACE TENSEGRITY 04a9c0782af9aed542be22bde52c6a49Does tensegrity within Nature carry its design past the confines of Earth? Or is Earth part of the tensegrity web? Does tensegrity only happen within our gravity based planet or is the tensegrity shape of objects universal throughout the universe? Crystals on the lunar surface within the regolith would seem to lead an observer to consider a microshape as a particle that can be assembled anywhere, within the domain of our immediate Milky Way. Even from meteorites that continually smack into the lunar surface. Similar shape crystals detect gravity in our own vestibular apparatus. The dust that clings to a lunar astronauts glove is within us as accelerometers. We are built from the universe.

Can an astronaut have a concussion in space ? Is gravity a necessary component for the head collision to happen, what about the shape of the brain itself? What happens to the shape of the brain as it distorts as it vortexes on itself, where is this force felt ? Water vortexes into all manner of shapes that get mimicked in life forms throughout Nature. We exist in an open system to only look at our immediate surroundings by rejecting the collisions of objects into either the moon or Earth.


Objects of collision from 2005 to 2013 on Lunar surface.

What happens within the immune system as anti-gravity is experienced, is there such a response as anti-tensegrity?
ASTRONAUT lostInside the cells of this astronaut the time frame has always been inside an orientation with direction. The surface horizon has always been present toward a position pointing to light during the day, to the stars at night. This constancy of a daily cycle like a millennial switch on-off through first the water phase days than onto the dust days of evolution. Yet this dependence on position on the very establishment of shape as the means to detect is scaled within the smallest of the cells at their very points of attachment. The existence of multitudes of connections becomes a convergence of shape establishing itself as the web of life. The breathing astronaut carries his atmosphere with him inside the vulnerable vacuum outside the space craft.

But what of the water that makes up most of his body does water hold shape too despite its amorphous looseness?

VORTEX H2O 2007_03_DSC_0266bEven suction at the draining of a pool can spin water molecules into the familiar vortex forming above the drain. But where did the shape suddenly come from ? The spin volume wasn’t present at first, the shape appeared out of the shape of stable water itself. Shape is this architecture of form that balances tension into compression within the coherence of the form, the floating tension/compression that Snelson first grasped in 1948. But shape is everywhere even on those crystals stirred into impact shedding craters on the Lunar regolith surface.

How do the tensegrity points of contact change in anti-gravity within the immune production say at the bottom of the astronauts lungs breathing his artificial atmosphere upside down in floating anti-tensegrity ? How do cells perform when there is no up down or sideways?

Sometimes the only real remaining evidence from horrific encounters from the past are discovered in the ground. The most durable material being the bones.

BONES Sr_Salme3

The discovery of arrows penetrating into the body is proof of a violent ending of life. But what if instead of arrows penetration occurs into the body affecting the bones themselves but the effect is due to anti-gravity. According to mounting observations, “ It seems that the cells of the immune system and the cells that remodel bone regulate each other’s function.” 

This summation comes via comments from both Joseph Arron, students of the Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program and Yongwon Choi, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Laboratory of Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York,New York 10021, USA in the article Bone versus Immune System in Nature |Vol 408|30 November 2000|. Imagine the arrows  in this image are the figurative arrows of the vector of gravity acting into the bone. As astronauts return to gravity their bones are thinner from their exposure to anti-gravity, but is the immune system changing too?

tensegrity nuclear matrix 1-s2.0-S1073874608000479-gr4What does a collapsed tensegrity object look like ?

TENSEGRITRY COLLAPSEThe difference is when the reestablished tension/compression is reconnected forcing the entire balanced shape to become into existence like the still water turning into a vortex above a drain in a pool, shape suddenly appears.

TENSEGRITY on hand The shape change is not the envelope that is coherent the shape change is the ability to accomplish sensing within the shape change. Notice the  nuclear matrix transcription factors in the diagram above. The shape based transcription performs the copying of DNA into messenger RNA in gene expression. Shape in shape out, is also information in information out from shape changes. Loose the shape in detecting a bacteria, a virus, on contact T-cells. T-cells are constantly vigilant to fight off foreign particles in our surroundings. But T-cells are also secreting a molecule that inhibits the development plus the activation of bone-absorbing cells. The shape of the immune response is linked to the bone response as a dynamic relationship.

“Rigid bone appears as unchanging but is a constant yin-yang of addition then subtraction, as secretion and resorption of the bone matrix. These opposite actions are carried out by two cell types-osteoblasts and osteoclasts which are in balanced equilibrium maintaining skeletal integrity.”

The shape of integrity, could this be our constant architecture, tensegrity as tensional integrity revealing itself? The reflection occurs as we age we lose shape capacity within our architecture, certainly as the bony skeleton ages the shape of the older face is like the weathered features of a landscape. We loose definition, skin sags wrinkles sweep like waves of distortion over the face. But those surface changes are bone changes beneath the surface. Shape is the code of the messengers that our cells signal to each other, shape is the outcome of the primal communication. Shape is the vortex that spins as if twirling off-axis.


What started originally as a query in my own little laboratory took on a different aspect of how Nature builds things, how shape is not the outcome but shape is the motion of communication. How information gets transferred through shape changes. How information is also lost through shape changes. How concussion is all about the distortion of elastic shape within the structure of the entire brain. It’s not about the brain, in common understanding is a cartoon style banging into the inner boundary of the bony head case, it’s how the brain actually changes shape itself how it spins on its own axis, how this spin motion, how this vortex of brain tissue reveals itself in tension/compression changes.

We are surrounded by the spinning shape of vortex motion. The eddies around rocks in  a river, the molecules within the air, the release of pressure from the wingtips of a humming-bird, all reveal vortices as signatures of shape predominating, creating patterns from nothing. VORTEX tumblr_inline_msd73kelin1qz4rgp

The fascination to shape is its VORTEX BROAD BILLED HB 5382043362_f7fc9fcb6c_zuniversal appearance at every scale of our experience. Shape is the nano scale of roughness at the contact of proteins reaching into each others domain of influence. Shape is the scale of wrinkles of twisted bone channels reacting to the stress of gravity shedding weight down the length of the walking bone. Scaling up is the scale of the Earth vortexing within another vortex centered by our Sun orb in the planetary motions of our own galaxy form.

VORTEX Boeing_777_Air_Turbulence_Wallpaper_1600x1200_wallpaperhereMan made shape at the wing tips of a Boeing 777 or the tufts of blurred air tips from a hovering hummingbird all display this vortex effect, the shape of dynamic disturbance within the chaotic mixing of motion in action.

Life itself depends on the vortex to promote life.

VORTEX FISH 6114991558_e2fc48e10b_z

As the fish vortex descends into the depths the moment transitions into a spawning spasm within the rising release of their eggs and sperm as the silver vortex of spiral motion swirls breaching into the surface. The very birth of these bonefish is determined in the shape of turbulent release within the upward spiralling vortex beneath the rising moonlight penetrating their flickering forms, the fertilized eggs spreading over the oceans waves spreading new life away from their parents vortex spiral.

But where does bone come into this story? What does bone have to do with the shape of the brain? What does the vortex shape have to do with the brain during a concussion ? A lot, here’s some evidence. So what are a few of the other generalities, that involve shape how Nature employs shape to accomplish things?

The mammalian body plan is symmetric, there is the chiral character of left with right. The structure of the objects in this essay have two sides to their design in 3D space that are mirror images to each other. Place one side over the other, they don’t match up. Handedness is everywhere especially how shape is designed in the floating tension integrity of balanced tension, the chirality of tensegrity. The other central characteristic is the presence of gravity that imposes its very magnificence on all cellular design all cellular communication. If you try to make a gene deletion within the vestibular system by not having the shape of the semicircular canals. Such a deletion has a super caustic effect on the entire shape sensing a la Snelson formation of sensing gravity. Every cell is lost in terms of transcription-translation-translocation. No progression toward the next generation – it’s a game killer releasing loss of coherence. Destroy the sensing of gravity is the doomsday bomb of the entire sensing system. Life transfer will get wiped out. (Please read my other essays on Snelson shape sensing. )

Life signalling has had a few billion years to create a prioritization of establishing gravity, vestibular orientation to know where the buoyant horizon is as early life forms took shape in the oceans. Stability was built into sensing the flatness of a body form moving through water. The genius of Nature is that Nature used shape as form to accomplish building the architecture of life. The vortex is a primal shape of life revealing itself all around us.

Lose water on the runway swirled into a vortex from the suction of a jet engine

Loose water on the runway swirled into a vortex from the suction of a jet engine

The shape of bone is transformed, guided by a critical protein called BMP4, bone morphogenetic protein family which is part of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. If the shape of the semicircular canals is clobbered at this point within an embryo the real observation is that a bone protein is a central character, as if the mega Don of all cells, the first boss of sensing. All other players answers to the big boss. The vestibular system drives the autonomic system. When you suffer a brain concussion you crash the vestibular system first which has effects on all other systems especially the autonomic system that organizes all the daily critical tasks of pacing things like the heart and lungs, the beat and breath of life. For the first time in human existence as astronauts ventured into micro-gravity-less space travel, life was exposed to antigravity. Life within the cells reacted under that loss of central vestibular orientation. The very breathing pattern of the astronauts changes, from a intercostal-diaphragm muscle inspiration becoming an abdominal based motion of breathing. This is statistical relevant data. This muscle sensing switching also affects the immune system how detection of any foreign substance interacts within the body. NASA blames the ease of acquiring colds or sinus stuffiness to a shift in body fluids. Something more massive than fluids is altering the entire dynamics in antigravity it’s causing subtle changes in the very essential sensing to the horizon, the brain stops yawning. The brain can’t calibrate to the sensing to the now removed gravity vector. Lose gravity in the antigravity – you force anti-tensegrity into the entire signalling system. You lose shape sensing. But the brain is a wizard in response -the brain compensates instantaneously. But the brain still can’t trigger onto the horizon so it builds another horizon that doesn’t really work. That is in my mind similar to what happens during the first few instances of a brain concussion. The brain loses the horizon. The concussed body struggles to its feet but staggers it’s sensing of gravity horribly broken. The brain in anti-gravity response. The effects slow down in time to the very metabolism of how bone changes to the time frame of how our bones age. The process of bone aging accelerates in time. In antigravity the bones lose their shape. But since this is such a slow insidious process the changes are not immediately apparent. But what also happens during the brain concussion is a brain vortex, the brain rotates on itself always. The brain is a shape sensing object exquisitely designed from billions of years of evolution. But the brain is also chiral a left- a right- the brain is a floating tension compression object like other objects in buoyant life. The brain has petalia influencing character. Our capacity to speak has caused the brain language zones to push against our inner bone case causing the bone to expand. Our brains are lopsided, asymmetric so they will rotate, it’s called Yakovlevian torque

PETALIA BRAIN nrn1009-f2There’s that bone-brain conversation again. What do returning long mission astronauts suffer from? Staggering vestibular re-adaptation plus defined bone loss. The astronauts bone shape have aged while in space as if time had accelerated.

The vortex is the shape of motion preferred by Nature to scale itself in the atmosphere, along the wing tips of a hummingbird or inside the brain itself. The vortex shape is the state of the essence of shape sensing using the architecture of building tensegrity based coherent objects where shape was not present before. Shape can be invisible but shape is always present, just like gravity. Just like a black hole jet vortexing into gravity creation shape.


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Lagena gravity sensing


The structure Lagena, may serve auditory function in all non-mammalian vertebrates plus primitive vestibular function in Lamprey and in terrestrial amphibians. 

Hagfish, the class Myxini (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped slime-producing marine animals (occasionally called slime eels). They are the only known living animals that have a skull but not a vertebral column. Along with lampreys, hagfish are jawless and are living fossils; hagfish are basal to vertebrates, and living hagfish remain similar to hagfish from 300 million years ago.

The classification of hagfish has been controversial. The issue is whether the hagfish is itself a degenerate type of vertebrate-fish (most closely related to lampreys), or else may represent a stage which precedes the evolution of the vertebral column (as do lancelets).  The original scheme groups hagfish and lampreys together as cyclostomes  (or historically, Agnatha), as the oldest surviving class of vertebrates alongside gnathosomes,  (the now-ubiquitous jawed-vertebrates).

But what is the significance to dwell on these living fossils, why is there if any relevance to their evolution? What does this have to do with brain concussions anyways? My first point is to understand brain concussion you have to understand what moves first in the deceleration- from the perspective of mass inside a moving object in those apatite polyhedrons, inside the Lagena structure. The first detection of acceleration is the first thing that actually moves. What is the shape of these apatite crystals ? It appears to be a tetrahedron-like tensegrity shape. To understand modern evolved tissue structures you have to know where they came from- how Nature designed them in the first place. That is the start off point for the investigation of this essay on Lagena structures. The other perspective is that the apparatus to sense acceleration or direction always involves something hard, something solid. The gist of the logic is since the hagfish behave as living fossils, they don’t have a vertebral column nor a complete brain case. The living fossil is speaking to us in its language of bone communication teaching us this is the language to follow in order to interpret balance distortion within a gravity field sensed within a hard substance. The brain is essentially an elastic tissue but to begin to comprehend its structure the ancient character of something hard is the source to begin to resolve the real interpretation. Hard tissue teaches about soft tissue deformations in gravity.

The functionality of crystals of apatite are the tiny mass elements that ancient vestibular systems detect the horizontal or vertical acceleration within the gravity vector always present as a reference point. apatitestr1If you look at the structure of apatite from the research lab of University of Manitoba Lab of Anton R. Chakhmouradian in the Department of Geological Sciences, the similarity to a tensegrity/tetrahedral architectural shape should be apparent to the observer. Listen to the words of Chakhmouradian as he describes the shape of the apatite structure:

“The crystal structure of apatite (viewed down the crystallographic axis) consists of (PO4)3+ groups (pink tetrahedra), monovalent anions like F and (OH) (purple spheres) in the “tunnels” parallel to the crystallographic axis, and Ca2+ cations in two coordinations: seven- and nine-fold. The CaO6(F,OH) and CaO9 polyhedra are colored yellow and green, respectively. A large number of natural and an even greater variety of synthetic compounds adopt this type of structure, or derivative structures arising from ordering of large cations in the Ca sites, small cations in the P sites, or anions in the “tunnels”. “


Moon rocks collected by astronauts during the Apollo program contain traces of apatite. What does this remarkable coincidence suggest ? Apatite is the element within ancient vestibular systems, it is part of our very bones and it is also found on the moon. The architecture of apatite is a tensegrity based tetrahedral linked lattice shape found on Earth and the moon.

Snelson tensegrity page14_01If you go onto Kenneth Snelson’s web site, the inventor of the first sculpture of floating tension tensegrity in 1948 one of his typical structures is from one of Snelson’s masts. Notice the tetrahedral aspect to the architecture. The polyhedron mast can have its own mirror image, which is prevalent throughout Nature’s domains as enantiomers, a left version and a right version. If apatite crystals are formed both on Earth and the moon, the design of tensegrity is logically outside of being on Earth alone. The design of tensegrity is a design from across the universe itself. The span of time between the appearance of the jawless hagfish with their apatite crystals shifting from positional changes within their vestibular apparatus until the Apollo astronauts cavorting about the 1/6 gravity on the lunar surface is of the magnitude over 300 million years old.

The surface of the Moon has been subject to billions of years of collisions with both small and large asteroidal and cometary materials. Over time, these impact processes have pulverized and “gardened” the surface materials, forming a fine grained layer termed “regolith”. The thickness of the regolith varies between 2 meters beneath the younger maria, to up to 20 meters beneath the oldest surfaces of the lunar highlands. The regolith is predominantly composed of materials found in the region, but also contains traces of materials ejected by distant impact craters. The term “mega-regolith” is often used to describe the heavily fractured bedrock directly beneath the near-surface regolith layer.

The regolith contains rocks, fragments of minerals from the original bedrock, and glassy particles formed during the impacts. In most of the lunar regolith, half of the particles are made of mineral fragments fused by the glassy particles; these objects are called agglutinates.  The chemical composition of the regolith varies according to its location; the regolith in the highlands is rich in aluminium and silica, just as the rocks in those regions. The regolith in the maria is rich in iron and magnesium and is silica-poor, as the basaltic rocks from which it is formed.

Descriptions of the specific packing of tetrahedra are from drawings by Buckminister Fuller:

Stabilization of Tension in Tensegrity Column: We put a steel sphere at the center of gravity of a cube which is also the center of gravity of tetrahedron and then run steel tubes from the center of gravity to four comers, W, X, Y, and Z, of negative tetrahedron (A).  Every tetrahedron's center of gravity has four radials from the center of gravity to the four vertexes of the tetrahedron (B).  In the juncture between the two tetrahedra (D),ball joints at
the center of gravity are pulled toward one another by a vertical tension stay, thus thrusting universally jointed legs outwardly, 
and their outward thrust is stably restrained by finite sling closure WXYZ.  This system is nonredundant: a basic discontinuous-compression continuous-tension or "tensegrity" structure.  It is possible to have a stack (column) of center-of-gravity radial tube 
tetrahedra struts (C) with horizontal (approximate) tension slingsand vertical tension guys and diagonal tension edges of the four superimposed tetrahedra, which, because of the (approximate) horizontal slings, cannot come any closer to one another, and, because 
of their vertical guys, cannot get any further away from one 
another, and therefore compose a stable relationships a structure.

tensegrity stackWhat is becoming apparent for the reader is that crystals stack in a conformational balance that both Snelson and Fuller were particularly elegant in describing, elements of molecules don’t just lie together like marbles in a jar, these complexes behave as ordered floating tension/compression architectures balanced within the entire structure.

Tensegrity Structures with Point Group Symmetry T

Tensegrity A

Tensegrity structures with point group symmetry, , will have the symmetries of rotations, but not reflections, of a tetrahedron. Since this T group tensegrity structure originates from tetrahedron, this structure has 7 symmetry axes, which are along the vertices and vertex diagonals of tetrahedron. The twelve symmetry operations; the identity, E, rotations by 120° and 240° about the vertices, 1, 2, 3 and 4; { C31, C32, C33, C34, C231, C232, C233, C234 }, and rotation by 180° about the ab, and c axes, { C2a, C2b, C2c }, form the symmetry group of the example structure. These twelve symmetry operations constitute the symmetry group T. We assume one regular orbit of nodes: there are 12 nodes, which have one to one correspondence with the 12 symmetry operations.

Tensegrity Structure T1

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1 gives the tensegrity structure T1.

Tensegrity Structure T2

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) connecting nodes E to node C33, and node C233 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -0.67 gives the tensegrity structure T2.

Tensegrity Structure T3

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2b with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1.74 gives the tensegrity structure T3.

Tensegrity Structure T4

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting nodes E to node C33, and node C233 with tension coefficient td;
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -1.5 gives the tensegrity structure T4.

Tensegrity Structure T5

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2a with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -3 gives the tensegrity structure T5.

Tensegrity Structure T6

Tensegrity A

If we choose to have:
1) a strut connecting nodes E to node C31, and node C231 with tension coefficient ts;
2) cable 1 connecting nodes E to node C32, and node C232 with tension coefficient tt; and
3) cable 2 connecting node E to node C2b with tension coefficient td,
then solution tt/ts = td/ts = -2.47 gives the tensegrity structure T6.

These series of architecture shapes show the evolution of different tensegrity shapes arriving from a standard tetrahedron configuration from the University of Cambridge, by Pandia Raj Ramar, Department of Engineering, 2008.

As the sleek sturgeon glides in shimmering sweeps of its muscles the very path of its flight thru the water is accomplished within the balance control by the Lagena structure, within the apatite matrix of shape twisting at the core of the gravity sensed changes. Nature has built this sensing capacity thru time as not only the steering capacity to define the motion of such a sleek sturgeon fish, all fish are linked, capable to navigate within the gravity field inside the water that covers most of the surface of our Earth. Life advanced from a basis of design to accomplish the motion of even the tiniest particles of life moving from one location to another. Positioning is defined by this elemental progression, defined as a shape sensing capacity to sense up from down to where the endless horizon appears that determines the surface of the waves cresting overhead.


The essence for the observer to contemplate this accomplishment is to respect that the basis of the start of such sensing is from a design that is also witnessed on the surface of the Earth in the gloved apatite dust handful clinging to a NASA astronaut hand.

Plaster casts of the hands of the Apollo 11 astronauts on display in the Apollo Treasures Gallery at the Apollo-Saturn V Center at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Cape Canaveral

Plaster casts of the hands of the Apollo 11 astronauts on display in the Apollo Treasures Gallery at the Apollo-Saturn V Center at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Cape Canaveral

The same design of gravity sensing polyhedron within the sturgeon’s Lagena is also figuratively found above on the Moon surface with a gravity pulsing tide creator responsible for those cresting ocean wave surges. The shape is a universal architectural tension/compression form whether inside a sturgeons balancing structure, inside the Lagena accelerometer or the grey Lagena apatite crystals polyhedron shape on the lunar surface, gravity is at the core of the observation for the shape sensing.

LAGENA Tafel_081_300

The shape is based on the principle arrangement of molecules defined under the mathematics of a floating tension/compression design first played with by a human in 1948, by Kenneth Snelson. The tensegrity, defined as tensional integrity by Buckminister Fuller who coined the phrase from Snelson’s revelation was the beginning of the description of Nature’s way of assembling shape into forming this coherence of design capable of sensing itself.

This tiny apatite shape defines the essence that shape itself is at the core of the capacity of Nature to create to sustain life in all its varied forms throughout the universe but especially on Earth which is our only perspective so far. The beginning to understand any concussion be it within the balance apparatus of a sturgeon fish or a human brain is to contemplate the essence of design that determines where the fish head points where the human head faces forward resolving how that very elegant coordinate X-Y-X position sensing within the field of gravity gets altered following a concussive blow. The brain senses itself based on a shape, on a floating compression/tension design found throughout the universe. To understand the beginning of how a concussion behaves is to study first the shape of the sensing of gravity that gets altered as the concussion happens in the first millisecond of change, then to follow the cascade of events that follows. It is learning this perspective that is the most difficult to grasp at first.

HEAD Traumatic-Brain-Injury

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